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Research Spotlights - Archives
Highlighting exceptional peer-reviewed journal publications featuring data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).
Research Spotlights Archives
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The following are 2017 examples of peer-reviewed journal publications that feature data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).

Comparing variation in hospital rates of cesarean delivery among low-risk women using 3 different measures.
Armstrong JC, Kozhimannil KB, McDermott P, Saade GR, Srinivas SK; Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine Health Policy Committee.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Feb;214(2):153-63.

Financial Incentives, Hospital Care, and Health Outcomes: Evidence from Fair Pricing Laws.
Batty M, Ippolito, B.
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy. 2017; 9(2): 28-56.

Contributions of Children With Multiple Chronic Conditions to Pediatric Hospitalizations in the United States: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.
Berry JG, Ash AS, Cohen E, Hasan F, Feudtner C, Hall M.
Hosp Pediatr. 2017 Jul;7(7):365-372.

A Nationwide Assessment of the Association of Smoking Bans and Cigarette Taxes With Hospitalizations for Acute Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, and Pneumonia.
Ho V, Ross JS, Steiner CA, Mandawat A, Short M, Ku-Goto MH, Krumholz HM.
Med Care Res Rev. 2017 Dec;74(6):687-704.

The Association Between Insurance and Transfer of Noninjured Children From Emergency Departments.
Huang Y, Natale JE, Kissee JL, Dayal P, Rosenthal JL, Marcin JP.
Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jan;69(1):108-116.
    This study utilizes the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to investigate the correlation between insurance and hospital transfer of non-injured children from emergency departments.

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Trends in Diagnoses Among Hospitalizations of HIV-infected Children and Adolescents in the United States: 2003-2012.
Hurst SA, Ewing AC, Ellington SR, Kourtis AP.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36(10):981-987.

Adherence to Methodological Standards in Research Using the National Inpatient Sample.
Khera R, Angraal S, Couch T, Welsh JW, Nallamothu BK, Girotra S, Chan PS, Krumholz HM.
JAMA. 2017 Nov 28;318(20):2011-2018.

The Impact of Disability and Social Determinants of Health on Condition-Specific Readmissions beyond Medicare Risk Adjustments: A Cohort Study.
Meddings J, Reichert H, Smith SN, Iwashyna TJ, Langa KM, Hofer TP, McMahon LF Jr
J Gen Intern Med. 2017 Jan;32(1):71-80.
    This study utilizes the 2009-2012 State Inpatient Databases (SID) for Florida and Washington to investigate influencers of readmission risk rate by condition.

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Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever.
Shi Y.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Apr 1;173:144-150. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.006.
    This study utilizes the 2011 State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 27 states to investigate the impact of marijuana legalization on hospitalizations related to opioid pain reliver use and marijuana use.

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Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2007 and 2013.
Taylor CA, Bell JM, Breiding MJ, Xu L.
MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017 Mar 17;66(9):1-16.
    This study utilizes the 2007 and 2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) and Nationwide/National Inpatient Sample (NIS) to estimate trending of incidences of Traumatic brain injury (TBI) - related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths across a six-year time frame.

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Reliability of 30-Day Readmission Measures Used in the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program.
Thompson MP, Kaplan CM, Cao Y, Bazzoli GJ, Waters TM.
Health Serv Res. 2016 Dec;51(6):2095-2114.

Thirty-Day Readmission Rate and Costs After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the United States: A National Readmission Database Analysis.
Tripathi A, Abbott JD, Fonarow GC, et al.
Cic Cardiovasc Interv. 2017; 10(12).

Rethinking Priorities: Cost of Complications After Elective Colectomy.
Zogg CK, Najjar P, Diaz AJ, Zogg DL, Tsai TC, Rose JA Jr, Scott JW, Gani F, Alshaikh H, Canner JK, Schneider EB, Goldberg JE, Haider AH.
Ann Surg. 2016 Aug;264(2):312-22.

Rural Bypass for Elective Surgeries.
Weigel P., Ullrich F., Finegan C. and Ward M.
J Rural Health. 2017; 33(2): 135-145.
    This study utilizes the 2011 State Inpatient Database (SID) and State Ambulatory Surgery Database (SASD) from Colorado, North Carolina, Vermont and Wisconsin to evaluate the rural bypass rates for elective surgeries at Critical Access Hospitals.

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The following are 2016 examples of peer-reviewed journal publications that feature data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).

Rising Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Infections in Hospitalized Children in the United States.
Adams DJ, Eberly MD, Goudie A, Nylund CM.
Hosp Pediatr. 2016 Jul;6(7):404-11
    This study utilizes the 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 Kids Inpatient Database (KID) to view trends of Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) hospitalizations among children and the impact on length of stay and cost of care. VRE are a type of bacteria called enterococci that have developed resistance to many antibiotics Exit Disclaimer, especially vancomycin.

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Hospital Utilization and Costs Among Preterm Infants by Payer: Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2009
Barradas DT, Wasserman MP, Daniel-Robinson L, Bruce MA, DiSantis KI, Navarro FH, Jones WA, Manzi NM, Smith MW, Goodness BM.
Matern Child Health J. 2016 Apr;20(4):808-18
    This study utilizes the 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to define hospital utilizations and costs associated with preterm or low birth weight births (preterm/LBW) by payer prior to the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) as well as determine areas where quality of care improvements can take place.

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After Medicaid Expansion In Kentucky, Use Of Hospital Emergency Departments For Dental Conditions Increased.
Chalmers N, Grover J, Compton R.
Health Aff (Millwood). 2016 Dec 1;35(12):2268-2276.
    This study utilizes the 2010-2014 State Emergency Department Database (SEDD) to examine the impact of the expansion on adult Medicaid enrollees' use of hospital emergency departments (EDs) for conditions related to dental or oral health.

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Nationwide increase in hospitalizations for heroin-related soft tissue infections: Associations with structural market conditions.
Ciccarone D, Unick GJ, Cohen JK, Mars SG, Rosenblum D.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Jun 1;163:126-33
    This study utilizes the 1993-2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) with data from the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to examine rates of hospital admissions for opiate-related skin and soft tissue infections (O-SSTI) and association to heroin source, form, and price.

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Unintentional injuries treated in hospital emergency departments among persons aged 65 years and older, United States, 2006-2011
DeGrauw X, Annest JL, Stevens JA, Xu L, Coronado V.
J Safety Res. 2016 Feb;56:105-9
    This special report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) utilizes the 2006-2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to investigate the increasing rates of ED-treated unintentional injuries among the population of older adults aged > 65 older.

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National Trends in Hospitalizations for Opioid Poisonings Among Children and Adolescents, 1997 to 2012.
Gaither JR, Leventhal JM, Ryan SA, Camenga DR.
JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Dec 1;170(12):1195-1201.
    This study utilizes the 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 Kids Inpatient Database (KID) to identify pediatric discharge records for patients aged 1 to 19 years who were hospitalized for opioid poisonings.

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Rural risk: Geographic disparities in trauma mortality.
Jarman MP, Castillo RC, Carlini AR, Kodadek LM, Haider AH.
Surgery. 2016 Dec;160(6):1551-1559.
    This study utilizes the 2009-2010 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to quantify differences in injury mortality for rural and nonrural residents with traumatic injuries.

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Disparities in Surgical Care Among Women With Endometrial Cancer.
Mannschreck D, Matsuno RK, Moriarty JP, Borah BJ, Dowdy SC, Tanner EJ 3rd, Makary MA, Stone RL, Levinson KL, Temkin SM, Fader AN.
Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Sep;128(3):526-34.
    This study utilizes the 2012-2013 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) to compare patients receiving minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of endometrial cancer and associated inpatient complications and costs against those patients receiving open surgery as well as the impact of patient race, hospital geography, and cancer volumes on disparities.

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Effects of a Commercial Insurance Policy Restriction on Lumbar Fusion in North Carolina and the Implications for National Adoption.
Martin BI, Deyo RA, Lurie JD, Carey TS, Tosteson AN, Mirza SK.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Jun;41(11):647-55
    This study utilizes the 2005-2012 State Inpatient Database (SID) for North Carolina in conjunction with the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to determine the impact of a commercial insurance policy change in 2011 on restriction of lumbar fusion for certain indications.

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Trends in colorectal cancer admissions and stage at presentation: impact of screening.
Moghadamyeghaneh Z, Alizadeh RF, Phelan M, Carmichael JC, Mills S, Pigazzi A, Zell JA, Stamos MJ.
Surg Endosc. 2016 Aug;30(8):3604-10.
    This study utilizes the 2002-2012 Nationwide/National Inpatient Sample (NIS) along with the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database to investigate colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and contemporary stage at diagnosis among age groups.

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"Halo effect" in trauma centers: does it extend to emergent colectomy?
Nagarajan N, Selvarajah S, Gani F, Alshaikh HN, Giuliano K, Zogg CK, Schneider EB, Haider AH.
J Surg Res. 2016 Jun 1;203(1):231-7
    This study utilizes the 2006-2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to determine if outcomes of emergency colectomy for diverticulitis differ between trauma centers (TCs) and non-trauma centers (NTCs).

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Hospital Charges for Pediatric Heart Failure-Related Hospitalizations from 2000 to 2009.
Nandi D, Lin KY, O'Connor MJ, Elci OU, Kim JJ, Decker JA, Price JF, Zafar F, Morales DL, Denfield SW, Dreyer WJ, Jefferies JL, Rossano JW.
Pediatr Cardiol. 2016 Mar;37(3):512-8
    This study utilizes the 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009 Kids Inpatient Database (KID) to explore costs for Pediatric Heart Failure-Related Hospitalizations (HFRH) over time.

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Etiologies and Predictors of 30-Day Readmission and In-Hospital Mortality During Primary and Readmission After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.
Panaich SS, Arora S, Patel N, Lahewala S, Agrawal Y, Patel NJ, Shah H, Patel V, Deshmukh A, Schreiber T, Grines CL, Badheka AO.
Am J Cardiol. 2016 Dec 1;118(11):1705-1711.
    This study utilizes the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) to investigate etiologies and predictors of readmission after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

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In-Hospital Outcomes and Costs Among Patients Hospitalized During a Return Visit to the Emergency Department.
Sabbatini, A, Kocher, K, Basu, A, Hsia, RY.
JAMA. 2016;315(7):663-671.
    This study utilizes the 2013 State Inpatient Database (SID) and State Emergency Department Database (SEDD) from Florida and New York to track outcomes of short-term ED readmissions.

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The following are 2015 examples of peer-reviewed journal publications that feature data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).

Hospitalization costs for acute myocardial infarction patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention in the United States are substantially higher than Medicare payments.
Afana M, Brinjikji W, Cloft H, Salka S.
Clin Cardiol. 2015 Jan;38(1):13-9.
    This study utilizes the 2001-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to evaluate hospitalization costs for acute myocardial infarction patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the associated Medicare payments.

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The rise in metastasectomy across cancer types over the past decade.
Bartlett EK, Simmons KD, Wachtel H, Roses RE, Fraker DL, Kelz RR, Karakousis GC.
Cancer. 2015 Mar 1;121(5):747-57.
    This study utilized the 2000-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to estimate the national incidence of metastasectomy for colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma.

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Relationship between Guillain-Barré syndrome, influenza-related hospitalizations, and influenza vaccine coverage.
Iqbal S, Li R, Gargiullo P, Vellozzi C.
Vaccine. 2015 Apr 21;33(17):2045-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.02.064. Epub 2015 Mar 4.
    This study utilizes the 2000-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) in conjunction with National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for analysis of hospitalizations with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) as the principal diagnosis to determine a possible correlation between GBS hospital admissions and seasonal vaccine coverage.

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The epidemiology of chronic critical illness in the United States.
Kahn JM, Le T, Angus DC, Cox CE, Hough CL, White DB, Yende S, Carson SS.
Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb;43(2):282-7.
    This study utilizes the 2004-2009 State Inpatient Databases (SID) from Massachusetts, Nebraska, New York, and North Carolina to determine the prevalence, outcomes, and associated costs of chronic critical illness in the United States.

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Trends in pediatric spleen management: Do hospital type and ownership still matter?
Liu S, Bowman SM, Smith TC, Sharar SR.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 May;78(5):935-42. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000621.
    This study utilizes the 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) to examine changes in pediatric spleen injury management over a decade at not-for-profit and for-profit hospitals.

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Epidemiology and Outcomes of Hospital-based Emergency Department Visits with Tooth Fractures
Nalliah RP, Rampa S, Lee MK, Allareddy V, Allareddy V.
Pediatr Dent. 2015 Jul-Aug;37(4):348-54
    This study utilizes the 2008-2010 Nationwide Emergency Department Database (NEDS) for identification of characteristics and risk factors associated with tooth fractures and hospital admission rates in children under 21 years of age.

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National trends in hospital-treated self-harm events among middle-aged adults.
Olfson M, Wang S, Blanco C.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2015 Nov-Dec;37(6):613-9. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.08.004. Epub 2015 Aug 21
    This study utilizes the 2000-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to analyze an increase in national trends of hospital-treated self-harm events for adults aged 45-64 years.

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National trends in maternal use of opioid drugs among pregnancy-related hospitalizations in the United States, 1998 to 2009.
Salihu HM, Mogos MF, Salinas-Miranda AA, Salemi JL, Whiteman VE.
Am J Perinatol. 2015 Feb;32(3):289-98.
    This study utilizes the 1998-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to describe national trends for opioid use among pregnancy-related hospitalizations.

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Delayed-onset cytomegalovirus disease coded during hospital readmission in a multicenter, retrospective cohort of liver transplant recipients.
Santos CA, Brennan DC, Chapman WC, Fraser VJ, Olsen MA.
Liver Transpl. 2015 May;21(5):581-90. doi: 10.1002/lt.24089. Epub 2015 Apr 15
    This study utilizes the 2004-2010 State Inpatient Database (SID) from 4 states for analysis of delayed-onset cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease amongst liver transplant recipients.

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Population -based study of hospital costs for hospitalizations of infants, children, and adults with a congenital heart defect, Arkansas 2006 to 2011.
Simeone RM, Oster ME, Hobbs CA, Robbins JM, Collins RT, Honein MA.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2015 Sep;103(9):814-20
    This study utilizes the 2006-2011 State Inpatient Database (SID) for Arkansas to compare costs for hospitalizations of infants, children, and adults with congenital heart defects (CHDs).

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Hospital Transfer Network Structure as a Risk Factor for Clostridium difficile Infection
Simmering JE, Polgreen LA, Campbell DR, Cavanaugh JE, Polgreen PM.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015; 36(9):1031-1037
    This study utilizes the 2005-2011 State Inpatient Database (SID) for California to analyze the rate of Clostridium difficile infections in a hospital as related to interhospital patient transfers.

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Comparability of National Estimates for Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Medical Encounters.
Taylor CA, Greenspan AI, Xu L, Kresnow MJ.
J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015 May-Jun;30(3):150-9. doi: 0.1097 /HTR. 0000000000000105.
    This study pairs the 2006-2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) with the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) and the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) with the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) to examine traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits between national databases that capture US hospital data.

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Variation in US hospital emergency department admission rates by clinical condition.
Venkatesh AK, Dai Y, Ross JS, Schuur JD, Capp R, Krumholz HM.
Med Care. 2015 Mar;53(3):237-44.
    This study utilizes the 2009 National Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to describe variation in ED risk-standardized admission rates (RSAR) and the consistency between condition-specific ED admission rates within hospitals.

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Comparison of rates of emergency department procedures and critical diagnoses in metropolitan and rural hospitals.
Waymack JR, Markwell S, Milbrandt JC, Clark TR.
Rural Remote Health. 2015 Oct-Dec;15(4):3298. Epub 2015 Oct 13
    This study utilizes the 2006 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to identify higher rates of emergency department procedures and critical diagnoses among facilities located in metropolitan areas versus their rural counterparts.

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The following are 2014 examples of peer-reviewed journal publications that feature data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).

The effect of pre-Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid eligibility expansion in New York State on access to specialty surgical care
Aliu O, Auger KA, Sun GH, Burke JF, Cooke CR, Chung KC, Hayward RA.
Med Care. 2014 Sep;52(9):790-5.
    This study utilizes the 1998-2006 New York State Inpatient Database (SID) to examine whether Medicaid expansion increased access to common musculoskeletal procedures for Medicaid beneficiaries.

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Has access to care changed in minority communities? A study of preventable hospitalizations over time in selected States.
Basu J.
J Ambul Care Manage. 2014 Oct-Dec;37(4):314-30.
    This study utilizes the Arizona, California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York State Inpatient Databases (SID) to assess the changes in access to care in minority communities by examining the association between preventable hospitalization rates and racial/ethnic composition of the community during 1995-2005.

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Vital signs: health burden and medical costs of nonfatal injuries to motor vehicle occupants - United States, 2012.
Bergen G, Peterson C, Ederer D, Florence C, Haileyesus T, Kresnow MJ, Xu L; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Oct 10;63(40):894-900.
    This study utilizes the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) to examine the current health burden and medical and work loss costs of nonfatal crash injuries among vehicle occupants in the United States.

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ED use by older adults attempting suicide
Carter MW, Reymann MR.
Am J Emerg Med. 2014 Jun;32(6):535-40.
    This study utilizes the 2006 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to analyze patterns of older adult patient visits to emergency departments for self-harm and suicide-related injuries.

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Disparities in access to deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson disease: interaction between African American race and Medicaid use
Chan AK, McGovern RA, Brown LT, Sheehy JP, Zacharia BE, Mikell CB, Bruce SS, Ford B, McKhann GM 2nd.
JAMA Neurol. 2014 Mar;71(3):291-9.
    African American individuals experience barriers to accessing many types of health care in the United States, resulting in substantial health care disparities. This study utilizes the NIS to examine deep brain stimulation (DBS) use in Parkinson disease (PD) to determine which factors, among a variety of demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic variables, drive DBS use in the United States.

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Racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity: a multistate analysis, 2008-2010
Creanga AA, Bateman BT, Kuklina EV, Callaghan WM.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 May;210(5):435.e1-8.
    This study uses the 2008-2010 State Inpatient Databases (SID) from seven states to examine racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity during delivery hospitalizations in the United States.

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Specialization and the current practices of general surgeons
Decker MR, Dodgion CM, Kwok AC, Hu YY, Havlena JA, Jiang W, Lipsitz SR, Kent KC, Greenberg CC.
J Am Coll Surg. 2014 Jan;218(1):8-15.
    The impact of specialization on the practice of general surgery has not been characterized. This study uses the 2008 State Inpatient Databases and State Ambulatory Surgery Databases of 3 states to assess general surgeons' operative practices to inform surgical education and workforce planning.

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Insurance status and the transfer of hospitalized patients: an observational study
Hanmer J, Lu X, Rosenthal GE, Cram P.
Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jan 21;160(2):81-90.
    There is little objective evidence to support concerns that patients are transferred between hospitals based on insurance status. This study uses the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample to examine the relationship between patients' insurance coverage and interhospital transfer.

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Variation in hospital-based acute care within 30 days of outpatient plastic surgery.
Hansen DG, Abbott LE, Johnson RM, Fox JP.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014 Sep;134(3):370e-378e.
    This study utilizes the 2009-2010 California, Florida, Nebraska, and New York State Ambulatory Surgery Databases (SASD) to describe the frequency and variation of hospital-based acute care rates across ambulatory surgery centers.

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Does health information exchange reduce redundant imaging? Evidence from emergency departments
Lammers EJ, Adler-Milstein J, Kocher KE.
Med Care. 2014 Mar;52(3):227-34.
    Broad-based electronic health information exchange (HIE) is expected to produce large quality gains and cost savings. This study uses the State Emergency Department Databases for California and Florida for 2007-2010 to evaluate whether HIE adoption is associated with decreases in repeat imaging in emergency departments (EDs).

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Use of Hospital-Based Services Among Young Adults With Behavioral Health Diagnoses Before and After Health Insurance Expansions
Meara E, Golberstein E, Zaha R, Greenfield SF, Beardslee WR, Busch SH.
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Apr;71(4):404-11.
    This study uses the 2003-2009 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the 2003-2009 State Inpatient Database (SID) and State Emergency Department Database (SEDD) from Maryland and Massachusetts to evaluate the association between health insurance coverage expansions and use of hospital-based care among young adults with behavioral health diagnoses.

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Disability-adjusted life-year burden of abusive head trauma at ages 0-4.
Miller TR, Steinbeigle R, Wicks A, Lawrence BA, Barr M, Barr RG.
Pediatrics. 2014 Dec;134(6):e1545-50. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1385.
    This study utilizes the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) to estimat the disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden of abusive head trauma (AHT) at ages 0 to 4 years in the United States.

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Epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in hospitalized children in the United States from 2000-2009.
Pant C, Deshpande A, Olyaee M, Anderson MP, Bitar A, Steele MI, Bass PF 3rd, Sferra TJ.
PLoS One. 2014 May 7;9(5):e95552
    This study uses the 2000-2009 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) to examine the epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in hospitalized children.

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Epidemiological analysis on two decades of hospitalizations for meningitis in the United States.
Pellegrino P, Carnovale C, Perrone V, Salvati D, Gentili M, Brusadelli T, Antoniazzi S, Pozzi M, Radice S, Clementi E.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 Sep;33(9):1519-24.
    This study utilizes the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to analyze the trend of meningitis incidence from 1993 to 2011 and in specific age groups before and after the introduction of specific vaccines (the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 [PCV-7] and the meningococcal conjugate vaccine 4 [MCV-4]).

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Hospital readmissions after primary shoulder arthroplasty.
Schairer WW, Zhang AL, Feeley BT.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014 Sep;23(9):1349-55.
    This study uses the State Inpatient Database (SID) from 7 different states to determine the 90-day readmission rate, causes of readmission, and risk factors for readmission for shoulder arthroplasty procedures.

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Inpatient survival after gastrectomy for gastric cancer in the 21st century.
Wang H, Pawlik TM, Duncan MD, Hui X, Selvarajah S, Canner JK, Haider AH, Ahuja N, Schneider EB.
J Surg Res. 2014 Jul;190(1):72-8.
    This study utilizes the 2001-2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to examine how changes in patient- and hospital-level factors are associated with gastric cancer outcomes over the last decade.

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An examination of longitudinal CAUTI, SSI, and CDI rates from key HHS data systems
Weinberg DA, Kahn KL.
Med Care. 2014 Feb;52(2 Suppl 1):S74-82.
    In response to the growing concern about healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed the National Action Plan to Prevent Healthcare-associated Infections. This study aims to identify and assess the strengths and weaknesses HHS data systems, including the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, available for surveillance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, surgical site infections, and Clostridium difficile infections.

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A decade analysis of trends and outcomes of bariatric surgery in Medicare beneficiaries
Young MT, Jafari MD, Gebhart A, Phelan MJ, Nguyen NT.
J Am Coll Surg. 2014 Sep;219(3):480-8.
 
 
 

The following are 2013 examples of peer-reviewed journal publications that feature data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).

Emergency Department Use by Centenarians: The 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample
Carey MR, Howell EM, McHugh MC.
Prev Chronic Dis. 2013 Nov 27;10:E198.
    Older adults have higher rates of emergency department use than younger adults, and the number of centenarians is expected to increase. This study uses the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to examine centenarians' use of the Emergency Department in the United States, including diagnoses, charges, and disposition.

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Measuring Hospital Quality Using Pediatric Readmission and Revisit Rates
Bardach NS, Vittinghoff E, Asteria-Penaloza R, Edwards JD, Yazdany J, Lee HC, et al.
Pediatrics. 2013 Sep;132(3):429-36..
    This study uses select State Inpatient Databases (SID) and State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) from 2006-2009, the Clinical Classifications Software (CCS), and the HCUP Supplemental Variables for Revisit Analyses to investigate pediatric readmission and revisit rate variations among hospitals, as well as to determine the number of high- and low-performing hospitals.

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Variation in Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus among Hospital Discharges for Obstetric Delivery across 23 States in the United States
Bardenheier BH, Elixhauser A, Imperatore G, Devlin HM, Kuklina EV, Geiss LS, et al.
Diabetes Care. 2013 May; 36(5):1209-14.
    This study uses the 2008 State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 23 States to examine variability in diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus at delivery by race/ethnicity and State.

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Mortality burden of the 2009-10 influenza pandemic in the United States: improving the timeliness of influenza severity estimates using inpatient mortality records
Charu V, Simonsen L, Lustig R, Steiner C, Viboud C.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Sep;7(5):863-71.
    This study uses the 1990-2010 State Inpatient Databases (SID) to model inpatient mortality record to provide useful estimates of influenza severity in advance of national vital statistics release.

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Nationwide Temporal Trends in Incidence of Hospitalization and Surgical Intestinal Resection in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in the United States from 1997 to 2009
Debruyn JC, Soon IS, Hubbard J, Wrobel I, Panaccione R, Kaplan GG.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Oct;19(11):2423-32.
    Data are limited on temporal trends in outcomes of hospitalization and surgery in pediatric Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This study uses all years of the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) to evaluate the U.S. nationwide temporal trends for incidence of hospitalization and intestinal resection along with associated resource utilization.

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Bariatric Surgery Complications Before vs. After Implementation of a National Policy Restricting Coverage to Centers of Excellence
Dimick JB, Nicholas LH, Ryan AM, Thumma JR, Birkmeyer JD.
Jama. 2013 Feb; 309(8):792-9.
    This study uses the 2004 through 2009 State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 12 states to determine the effect on improvement and outcomes before and after the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) restricted coverage of bariatric surgery to hospitals designated as centers of excellence (COE).

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Hospital Cost and Quality Performance in Relation to Market Forces: An Examination of U.S. Community Hospitals in the "Post-managed Care Era"
Jiang HJ, Friedman B, Jiang S.
Int J Health Care Finance Econ. 2013 Mar;13(1):53-71.
    This study uses the 2001-2005 State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 29 states, the Cost-to-Charge Ratio Files (CCR), Hospital Market Structure File (HMS), and Inpatient Quality Indicators (IQI) to determine whether managed care and hospital competition has a positive effect on hospital cost and quality performance.

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Disparities in Access to Hospitals with Robotic Surgery for Patients with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy
Kim SP, Boorjian SA, Shah ND, Weight CJ, Tilburt JC, Han LC, et al.
J Urol. 2013 Feb;189(2):514-20.
    This study uses the 2006 through 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Comorbidity Software to examine population trends and socioeconomic disparities in radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer patients by hospitals with robotic surgery. Read more about this publication

Guns and states: Pediatric firearm injury
Lee J, Moriarty K, Tashjian D, Patterson L.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Jul;75(1):50-3.
    This study uses the 2006-2009 Kids Inpatient Databases (KID) to examine the association between pediatric firearm injuries and the Stand-Your-Ground (SYG) and Child Access Protection (CAP) laws. Read more about this publication

Ethnic Differences in Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders: Implications for Reducing Health Care Disparities
Moy E, Mau MK, Raetzman S, Barrett M, Miyamura JB, Chaves KH, et al.
Ethn Dis. 2013 Jan;23(1):6-11.
    This study uses the 2005 through 2007 Hawaii State Inpatient Databases (SID), Patient Quality Indicators (PQI), and Disparities Analysis File to produce reliable estimates of health care quality among Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, and Asian American subgroups.

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Clinical and Economic Burden of Emergency Department Visits due to Gastrointestinal Diseases in the United States
Myer PA, Mannalithara A, Singh G, Singh G, Pasricha PJ, Ladabaum U.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep;108(9):1496-507.
    This study uses the 2007 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to characterize the national clinical and economic burden of gastrointestinal visits to emergency departments.

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Racial Disparities in Mortality in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery in the USA
Nguyen GC, Patel AM.
Obes Surg. 2013 Oct;23(10):1508-14.
    Non-Hispanic blacks bear a disproportionate burden of the growing obesity epidemic. This study uses the 1999 to 2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to assess for racial disparities in short-term outcomes following bariatric surgery.

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Variation in Emergency Department Admission Rates across the United States
Pines JM, Mutter RL, Zocchi MS.
Med Care Res Rev. 2013 Apr; 70(2):218-31.
    This study uses the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) and the Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) to assess patient-, hospital-, and community-level factors associated with emergency department admission rates across U.S. hospitals.

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Epidemiology of Cryptococcal Meningitis in the US: 1997-2009
Pyrgos V, Seitz AE, Steiner CA, Prevots DR, Williamson PR.
PLoS One. 2013 Feb;8(2):e56269.
    This study uses the 1997 through 2009 State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 18 states to identify incidence, trends, and morbidity and mortality rates for Cryptococcal Meningitis-associated hospitalizations in the U.S.

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Comparison of Robotic and Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Benign Gynecologic Disease
Rosero EB, Kho KA, Joshi GP, Giesecke M, Schaffer JI.
Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Oct;122(4):778-86.
    The use of robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions is increasing. This study uses the 2009 and 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to examine clinical outcomes, safety, and cost of robotic compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy.

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Impact of the Fall 2009 Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic on US Hospitals
Rubinson L, Mutter R, Viboud C, Hupert N, Uyeki T, Creanga A, et al.
Med Care. 2013 Mar; 51(3):259-65.
    This study uses the 2003, 2004, and 2009 State Inpatient Databases (SID) and State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) and the Comorbidity Software to examine how U.S. hospitals functioned during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic in comparison to a corresponding baseline period. In addition, inpatient mortality was compared between high-surge and nonsurge hospitals.

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Community Hospital Admission from the Emergency Department by Persons with Substance Use Disorders
Schildhaus S, Stocks C, Santora PB, Smith MW.
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2013 Feb;44(2):201-7.
    This study uses the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to investigate whether health conditions and insurance status are predictors of admission to a community hospital directly from an ED visit for patients with a substance abuse disorder diagnosis.

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The Quality Of Care Delivered To Patients Within The Same Hospital Varies By Insurance Type
Spencer CS, Gaskin DJ, Roberts ET.
Health Aff (Millwood). 2013 Oct;32(10):1731-9.
    This study uses 2006-2008 State Inpatient Database (SID) records from eleven States to examines the extent to which a patient's type or lack of insurance may also play a role in determining the quality of care received at any given hospital.

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Hospital Utilization, Costs, and Mortality for Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2009
Steiner CA, Friedman B.
Prev Chronic Dis. 2013 Apr; 10(E62).
    This study uses the 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), Cost-to-Charge Ratio (CCR) Files, and Chronic Condition Indicator (CCI) to provide a national estimate across all payers of the distribution and cost of select chronic conditions for adults hospitalized in 2009 by demographic characteristics.

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Trends in immediate breast reconstruction across insurance groups after enactment of breast cancer legislation
Yang RL, Newman AS, Lin IC, Reinke CE, Karakousis GC, Czerniecki BJ, Wu LC, Kelz RR.
Cancer. 2013 Jul 1;119(13):2462-8. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28050.
    This study uses the 2000-2009 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) to evaluate the impact of the Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act on patients with different insurance plans.

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The following are 2012 examples of peer-reviewed journal publications that feature data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).

Preventable Hospitalizations and Medicare Managed Care: A Small Area Analysis
Basu J.
Am J Manag Care. 2012 Aug;18(8):e280-90.
    This study uses the 1995 and 2005 State Inpatient Databases (SID) and the Hospital Market Structure Files (HMS) to determine the correlation between preventable hospitalization rates and proportions of managed care enrollment at the primary care service area level.

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Changes in Preventable Hospitalization Patterns among the Adults: A Small Area Analysis of US states
Basu J, Thumula V, Mobley LR.
J Ambul Care Manage 2012 Jul;35(3):226-37.
    This study uses the 1995 and 2005 State Inpatient Databases (SID) to evaluate managed care, primary care physician supply, and sociodemographic factors as they contribute to the variation in preventable hospitalization rates for adults in the U.S. across small areas in five states.

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Congestive Heart Failure: Who is Likely to be Readmitted?
Coffey RM, Misra A, Barrett M, Andrews RM, Mutter R, Moy E.
Med Care Res Rev. 2012 Oct;69(5):602-16.
    This study uses the 2006 State Inpatient Databases (SID), Cost-to-Charge Ratio Files (CCR), and Revisit Files to examine likely readmissions for Congestive Heart Failure.

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All-cause Gastroenteritis and Rotavirus-coded Hospitalizations among US Children, 2000-2009
Desai R, Curns AT, Steiner CA, Tate JE, Patel MM, Parashar UD.
Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Aug;55(4):e28-34.
    This study uses the 2008 through 2009 State Inpatient Databases (SID) and the 2000 through 2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to estimate prevaccine burden and postvaccine trends in gastroenteritis-coded and rotavirus-coded hospitalizations for U.S. children.

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Likelihood of Hospital Readmission after First Discharge: Medicare Advantage vs. Fee-for-service Patients
Friedman B, Jiang HJ, Steiner CA, Bott J.
Inquiry. 2012 Fall;49(3):202-13.
    This study uses the 2006 State Inpatient Databases (SID), Chronic Condition Indicator (CCI), and Comorbidity Software to determine whether the likelihood of 30-day hospital readmission is different for Medicare Advantage plans versus the standard fee-for-service program.

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Measuring the Effect of Policy Interventions at the Population Level: Some Methodological Concerns
Huesch MD, Ostbye T, Ong MK.
Health Econ 2012 Oct;21(10):1234-49.
    This study uses the 2004 through 2007 State Inpatient Databases (SID) and the 2005 through 2007 State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) to examine statewide admission rates for acute myocardial infarctions, strokes and lower limb fractures, and emergency room encounter rates for asthma exacerbations before and after the smoking ban.

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Enhancing Board Oversight on Quality of Hospital Care: An Agency Theory Perspective
Jiang HJ, Lockee C, Fraser I.
Health Care Manage Rev. 2012 Apr;37(2):144-53.
    This study uses the 2007 State Inpatient Databases (SID) and the Inpatient Quality Indicators (IQI) to provide an update to prior research by exploring the role and practices of governing boards in quality oversight for U.S. community hospitals.

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Psychiatric-related Emergency Department Visits among Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Kalb LG, Stuart EA, Freedman B, Zablotsky B, Vasa R.
Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012 Dec;28(12):1269-76.
    This study uses the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) and Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) to look at the prevalence and characteristics of psychiatric-related ED visits for children aged 3-17 years with an autism spectrum disorder.

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Epidemiology of Humerus Fractures in the United States: Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, 2008
Kim SH, Szabo RM, Marder RA.
J Vasc Surg. 2012 Jan;55(1):72-8.
    This study uses the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to evaluate the occurrence of emergency department visits for humerus fractures in the U.S., and to estimate the number visits related to humerus fractures for the baby boomer generation as the population ages.

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Hospitalizations, Costs, and Outcomes of Severe Sepsis in the United States 2003 to 2007
Lagu T, Rothberg MB, Shieh MS, Pekow PS, Steingrub JS, Lindenauer PK.
Crit Care Med. 2012 Mar;40(3):754-61.
    This study uses the 2003-2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), the Cost-to-Charge Ratio (CCR) Files, and the Comorbidity Software to look at trends in the number of hospitalizations, outcomes, and costs of sever sepsis in the U.S., as well as in-hospital mortality related to severe sepsis.

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What Hospital Inpatient Services Contributed the Most to the 2001-2006 Growth in the Cost Per Case?
Maeda JL, Raetzman SO, Friedman BS.
Health Serv Res. 2012 Oct;47(5):1814-35.
    This study uses the 2001 through 2006 State Inpatient Databases (SID), Clinical Classifications Software (CCS), and the Cost-to-Charge Ratio Files (CCR) to show a refined cost-estimation method that converts detailed charges for inpatient stays into department-level costs to enable analyses of sources of rapid growth in inpatient costs.

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Regional Variations in Cost of Trauma Care in the United States: Who is More?
Obirieze AC, Gaskin DJ, Villegas CV, Bowman SM, Schneider EB, Oyetunji TA, et al.
Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012 Aug;73(2):516-22.
    This study uses the 2006 through 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the Cost-to-Charge Ratio Files (CCR) evaluates regional variations in the cost of adult trauma care to identify potential savings.

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Concentration of Hospital Care for Acute Sickle Cell Disease-related Visits
Panepinto JA, Owens PL, Mosso AL, Steiner CA, Brousseau DC.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012 Oct;59(4):685-9.
    This study uses the 2005 through 2006 State Inpatient Databases (SID) and State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) to determine the level of hospital care for privately and publicly insured patients with multiple sickle cell disease related acute care visits.

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Sociodemographic Trends in Bariatric Surgery Utilization in the USA
Pickett-Blakely OE, Huizinga MM, Clark JM.
Obes Surg. 2012 May;22(5):838-42.
    This study uses the 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to examine the utilization of bariatric surgery in the U.S. Data was examined by comorbid conditions and select sociodemographic categories, including race, sex, age, insurance, and median income.

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Harnessing the Power of Enhanced Data for Healthcare Quality Improvement: Lessons from a Minnesota Hospital Association Pilot Project
Pine M, Sonneborn M, Schindler J, Stanek M, Maeda JL, Hanlon C.
J Healthc Manag 2012 Nov;57(6):406-18.
    This study uses data from the Minnesota Hospital Association to determine the feasibility of creating hybrid administrative-clinical databases from hospital data captured electronically to improve hospital performance, identify best practices for capturing and using data from organizations with varying capabilities, and engage stakeholders and peer-group organizations to share information and support efforts to create and utilize hybrid databases.

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Thirty-Day, All-cause Readmissions for Elderly Patients Who Have an Injury-related Inpatient Stay
Spector WD, Mutter R, Owens P, Limcangco R.
Med Care. 2012 Oct;50(10):863-9.
    This study uses the 2006 State Inpatient Databases (SID) and State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) to explore ways to reduce readmission rates for elderly patients admitted to U.S. community hospitals with injury-related admissions.

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Population Based Comparative Effectiveness of Transurethral Resection of the Prostate and Laser Therapy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Strope SA, Yang L, Nepple KG, Andriole GL, Owens PL.
J Urol. 2012 Apr;187(4):1341-5.
    This study uses the 2005 State Inpatient Databases (SID), State Ambulatory Surgery Databases (SASD), and State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) for California and the HCUP Revisit Files for Analyses to assess the comparative effectiveness of transurethral prostate resection and laser therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia in the U.S.

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ED Visits for Drug-Related Poisoning in the United States, 2007
Xiang Y, Zhao W, Xiang H, Smith GA.
Am J Emerg Med. 2012 Feb;30(2):293-301.
    This study uses the 2007 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to describe the characteristics of emergency department visits for drug-related poisoning in the United States. In addition, this study determined the populations most affected by drug-related poisoning by age, sex, and area.

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Hospitalizations for Intussusception Before and After the Reintroduction of Rotavirus Vaccine in the United States
Zickafoose JS, Benneyworth BD, Riebschleger MP, Espinosa CM, Davis MM.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Apr;166(4):350-5.
    This study uses the 1997-2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), 1997-2009 Kidsí Inpatient Database (KID), 2006-2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the KIDS Trends Files, and HCUPnet to examine whether hospital discharges for intussusceptions in children younger than one years of age have changed since the reintroduction of the rotavirus vaccine in the U.S.

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The following are 2011 examples of peer-reviewed journal publications that feature data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).

Admissions for CABG Procedure in the Elderly: Was There a Change in Access to Teaching Hospitals After 1997?
Basu J.
Soc Work Public Health. 2011 Sep;26(6):605-20.
    This study uses the 1997-2001 State Inpatient Databases (SID) from New York and Pennsylvania to study patient attributes related to teaching hospital admissions for elderly patients who have had a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and to identify admission patterns and changes in vulnerable subgroups of the elderly during the time period.

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Dramatic Decreases in Mortality From Laparoscopic Colon Resections Based on Data From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample
Cone MM, Herzig DO, Diggs BS, Dolan JP, Rea JD, Deveny KE, Lu KC.
Arch Surg. 2011 May;146(5):594-9.
    This study uses the 2002-2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Elixhauser Comorbidity files to determine the mortality rate and associated factors for laparoscopic and open colectomy using a logistic regression model, and analyzing patient and hospital characteristics associated with in-hospital mortality.

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Report Card on Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP): Nationwide Inpatient Sample Infection Data 2001-2006
Davis JM, Kuo YH, Ahmed N, Kuo YL.
Surg Infec. 2011 Dec;12(6):429-34.
    This study uses the 2001-2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to examine infection rates of adult patients (18-years or older) having elective cholecystectomies, laparoscopic cholecystectomies, and colectomies, and looks at the administration of antibiotics to determine whether the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) has had an effect on surgical site infections.

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National Trends in utilization and postprocedure outcomes for carotid artery revascularization 2005 to 2007
Eslami MH, McPhee JT, Simons JP, Schanzer AS, Messina LM.
J Vasc. Surg. 2011 Feb;53(2):307-22.
    This study uses hospital discharge data from the 2005-2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Elixhauser Comorbidity Software files to provide an overview of trends in utilization, mortality, and stroke after carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) at the national level.

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Annual Report on Health Care for Children and Youth in the United States: Focus on Trends in Hospital Use and Quality
Friedman B, Berdahl T, Simpson LA, McCormick MC, Owens PL, Andrews R, Romano PS.
Acad Pediatr. 2011 Jul;11(2):263-79.
    This study uses the 2000-2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the AHRQ Pediatric Quality Indicators (PDI) to examine trends in hospital inpatient care for children between 2000-2007.

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An Evaluation of Statewide Emergency Department Utilization Following Medicaid Disenrollment
Heavrin BS, Fu R, Han JH, Storrow AB, Lowe RA.
Emerg Med. 2011 Nov;18(11):1121-8.
    This study uses the 2004-2006 State Inpatient Databases (SID) and State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) from Tennessee to examine the statewide effect on emergency department (ED) utilization following the Tennessee Medicaid expansion program (TennCare) in 2005, in which 171,000 adults were disenrolled from Medicaid.

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Geographic Variation: A View From the Hospital Sector
Henke RM, Marder WD, Friedman BS, Wong HS.
Med Care Res Rev. 2011 Dec;68(6):699-711.
    This study uses the 2008 State Inpatient Databases (SID) from 42 states to examine the variations in use of hospital inpatient services and its costs in several major metropolitan areas throughout the United States, and offers a broad insight into how the use of medical resources by the Medicare population differs from those covered by other types of insurance.

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Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations - United States, 2004-2007
Moy E, Barrett M, Ho K.
MMWR Surveillance Summ. 2011 Jan;14(60):80-83.
    This study uses AHQR Patient Quality Indicators (PQIs) and comes from the National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR) to estimate preventable hospitalizations and potential cost savings by income groups and by race/ethnicity in the United States.

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Factors Affecting Hospital Charges and Length of Stay From Teenage Motor Vehicle Crash-Related Hospitalizations Among United States Teenagers, 2000-2007
Peek-Asa C, Yang J, Ramirez M, Hamann C, Cheng G.
Accid Anal Prev. 2011 May;43(3):595-600.
    This study uses the 2002-2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to study the increasing number of hospitalizations among U.S. teenagers ages 15-18 from 2002-2007 due to a motor vehicle crash. This study assesses the significant burden places on teens and their families due to the high charges and length of stay associated with these types of hospitalizations.

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Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Infants on Pneumonia and Influenza Hospitalization and Mortality in All Age Groups
Simonsen L, Taylor RJ, Young-Xu Y, Haber M, May L, Klugman KP.
MBio. 2011 Jan;2(1):e00309-10.
    This study uses the 1996-2006 State Inpatient Databases (SID) from 10 states to assess the impact of infant immunization on pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations and mortality. In addition, the study examines a reduction in pneumococcal disease among adults and children following the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the U.S. in 2000.

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Obesity and Pulmonary Embolism: The Mounting Evidence of Risk and Paradox
Stein PD, Matta F, Goldman J.
Thromb Res. 2011 Dec;128(6):518-23.
    This study uses the 1998-2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to determine the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in obese patients by age, gender, and comorbid conditions in an effort to examine the relationship of obesity to mortality.

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Trends in Incidence of Subtrochacteric Fragility Fractures and Bisphosphonate Use Among the US Elderly, 1996-2007
Wang Z, Bhattacharyya T.
J Bone Miner. 2011 Mar;26(3):553-613.
    This study uses the 1996-2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and NIS-Trends Supplemental files to evaluate hip fractures and medication use in the elderly population in the United States.

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Hospitalizations for Alcohol and Drug Overdoses in Young Adults Ages 18-24 in the United States, 1999-2008: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample
White AM, Hingson RW, Pan IJ, Yi HY.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2011 Sep;72(5):774-86.
    This study uses the 1999-2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to study rates and costs of inpatient hospitalizations for drug and alcohol overdoses among young adults ages 18-24 in the United States.

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The following are 2010 examples of peer-reviewed journal publications that feature data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).

Maternal and fetal outcomes among women with depression
Bansil P, Kuklina EV, Meikle SF, Posner SF, Kourtis AP, Ellington SR, et al.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010 Feb;19(2):329-34.
    This study uses hospital discharge data from the 1998-2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to evaluate delivery-related hospitalizations for select maternal and fetal outcomes, such as cesarean delivery, preterm labor, anemia, diabetes, anemia, and fetal distress, among women with and without diagnosed depression at the time of delivery.

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Profile of inpatient operating room procedures in US hospitals in 2007
Elixhauser A, Andrews RM.
Arch Surg. 2010 Dec;145(12):1201-8.
    This study uses hospital discharge data from the 2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and 1997-2006 NIS Trends Supplemental files to provide an overview of inpatient operating room procedures in the in the United States and analyze hospital costs associated with OR procedures.

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Carbon monoxide-related hospitalizations in the U.S.: evaluation of a web-based query system for public health surveillance
Iqbal S, Clower JH, Boehmer TK, Yip FY, Garbe P.
Public Health Rep. 2010 May-Jun;125(3):423-32.
    This study uses the 1993-2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and HCUPnet to produce national estimates of carbon monoxide related hospitalizations.

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Empyema hospitalizations increased in US children despite pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
Li ST, Tancredi DJ.
Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125(1):26-33.
    This analysis uses the Kidsí Inpatient Database (KID) to determine if the incidence of empyema among children in the United States has changed since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2000.

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High turnover stays for pediatric asthma in the United States: Analysis of the 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database
Macy ML, Stanley RM, Sasson C, Gebremariam A, Davis MM.
Medical Care. 2010 Sep;48(9):827-33.
    This study uses the 2006 Kidsí Inpatient Database (KID) to describe factors associated with high-turnover rates for pediatric inpatient stays with a principal diagnosis of asthma. These factors include: younger age, uncomplicated asthma, and private insurance.

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Psychiatric discharges in community hospitals with and without psychiatric units: how many and for whom?
Mark TL, Vandivort-Warren R, Owens PL, Buck JA, Levit KR, Coffey RM, Stocks, C.
Psychiatric Services. Jun;61(6):562-8.
    Using the 2003 State Inpatient Databases (SID) from 12 states, this analysis evaluated the characteristics of patients with psychiatric disorders treated in medical-surgical beds compared to patients treated in psychiatric units in community hospitals.

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Frequency and outcomes of blood products transfusion across procedures and clinical conditions warranting inpatient care: An analysis of the 2004 healthcare cost and utilization project nationwide inpatient sample database
Morton J, Anastassopoulos KP, Patel ST, Lerner JH, Ryan KJ, Goss TF, et al.
American Journal of Medical Quality. 2010 Jul-Aug;25(4):289-96.
    This study uses the 2004 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (NIS) to evaluate the clinical outcomes associated with blood products transfusion, including: length of stay, postoperative infections, noninfectious transfusion-related complications, in-hospital mortality, and total charges.

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Hospital based emergency department visits attributed to dental carries in the United State in 2006
Nalliah RP, Allareddy V, Elangovan S, Karimbux N, Allareddy V.
J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2010 Dec;10(4):212-22.
    This study uses 2006 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) data to estimate hospital-based ED visits attributed to dental carries and evaluate payer information for ED visits for adults and children in the United States.

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Emergency department care in the United States: a profile of national data sources
Owens PL, Barrett ML, Gibson TB, Andrews RM, Weinick RM, Mutter RL.
Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2010 Aug;56(2):150-65.
    This study compares seven data sources (American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, Hospital Market Profiling Solution, National Emergency Department Inventory, Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All-Injury Program, and the National Health Interview Survey) to analyze utilization and quality of care in the Emergency Department on a national level.

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Weekend emergency department visits in Nebraska: higher utilization, lower acuity
Schoenfeld EM, McKay MP.
Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2010 May;38(4):542-5.
    This study uses the Nebraska State Emergency Department Database (SEDD) and State Inpatient Database (SID) to compare patterns of ED use on weekends with weekdays and analyze the differences between these two groups to elucidate the role of the ED in the health care delivery system.

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Trends and burden of bronchiectasis-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1993-2006
Seitz AE, Oliver KN, Steiner CA, Montes de Oca R, Holland SM, Prevots DR.
Chest. 2010 Oct;138(4):944-9.
    This study uses the 1993-2006 State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 12 states to estimate the trends and burden of bronchiectasis-associated hospitalizations in the United States.

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Pediatric urinary tract infections: an analysis of hospitalizations, charges, and costs in the USA
Spencer JD, Schwaderer A, McHugh K, Hains DS.
Pediatric Nephrol. 2010 Dec;25(12):2469-75.
    This study uses the 2000-2006 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) to evaluate the impact of pediatric urinary tract infections on the economy and inpatient healthcare utilization in the United States.

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Trends and outcomes of hospitalizations for peptic ulcer disease in the United States, 1993 to 2006
Wang YR, Richter JE, Dempsey DT.
Annals of Surg. 2010 Jan;251(1):51-8.
    This analysis uses the 1993-2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to examine time trends of hospitalizations and operations for Peptic Ulcer Disease, including rates of complications, procedures, diseased sites, and mortality.

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The following are 2009 examples of peer-reviewed journal publications that feature data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).

Pneumonia hospitalizations among young children before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine—United States, 1997-2006
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2009 Jan 16;58(1):1-4.
    This analysis uses the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to monitor pneumonia hospitalizations among young children in an effort to gauge the effect of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) that was recommended for use in infants and children in February 2000.

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Variations in inpatient mortality among hospitals in different system types, 1995 to 2000
Chukmaitov AS, Bazzoli GJ, Harless DW, Hurley RE, Devers KJ, Zhao M.
Medical Care. 2009 Apr;47(4):466-73.
    Using the State Inpatient Databases (SID) from 11 states and AHRQ’s Inpatient Quality Indicators (IQIs), this study evaluates the associations between 5 main types of health systems--centralized, centralized physician/insurance, moderately centralized, decentralized, and independent--and inpatient mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure, stroke, and pneumonia.

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Impact of the aging population on the demand for colorectal procedures.
Etzioni DA, Beart RW Jr, Madoff RD, Ault GT
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. 2009 Apr;52(4):583-90.
    Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the Florida State Ambulatory Surgery Database (SASD), this study identifies commonly performed inpatient and outpatient colorectal procedures, as well as associated diagnoses, and combines this information with census projections to generate projected volumes for the selected procedures and diagnoses.

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Hospital utilization and costs among children with influenza, 2003
Hassan F, Lewis TC, Davis MM, Gebremariam A, Dombkowski K.
American Journal of Preventative Medicine.2009 Apr;36(4):292-6.
    This retrospective analysis uses the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) to characterize the national burden of influenza hospitalizations and to evaluate how hospital costs and length of stay varied among children diagnosed with influenza after the augmented 2002 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices influenza vaccination recommendations.

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Recent trends in bariatric surgery case volume in the United States
Kohn GP, Galanko JA, Overby DW, Farrell TM.
Surgery. 2009 Aug;146(2):375-80.
    This study uses the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to examine recent trends in bariatric surgery in the United States, and investigates the relationship between volume trends and recent program accreditation and remuneration algorithms.

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The burden of rotavirus hospitalizations among Medicaid and non-Medicaid children younger than 5 years old
Ma L, El Khoury AC, Itzler RF.
American Journal of Public Health. 2009 Oct;99 Suppl 2:S398-404.
    Using the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID), researchers compare the burden of hospitalizations associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) in children younger than 5 years in US Medicaid and non-Medicaid populations.

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Use of emergency departments for conditions related to poor oral healthcare: implications for rural and low-resource urban areas for three states
Shortridge EF Moore JR.
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2009 May-Jun;15(3):238-45.
    This study uses the State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) from three states to investigate the use of emergency departments (EDs) for problems that might have been prevented given adequate oral healthcare.

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Disparities in the use of ambulatory surgical centers: A cross sectional study
Strope SA, Sarma A, Ye S, Wei JT, Hollenbeck BK.
BMC Health Services Research. 2009 Jul;9(121):1-7.
    Using the Florida State Ambulatory Surgery Database (SASD), this study evaluates the relationship between socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and the use of ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs).

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Physician ownership of ambulatory surgery centers and practice patterns for urological surgery: evidence from the state of Florida
Strope SA, Daignault S, Hollingsworth JM, Ye Z, Wei JT, Hollenbeck BK.
Medical Care. 2009 Apr;47(4):403-10.
    Using the Florida State Ambulatory Surgery Database (SASD), this study evaluates the relationship between physician-level ownership, financial incentives, and the use of ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs).

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Effects of childhood obesity on hospital care and costs, 1999-2005
Trasande L, Liu Y, Fryer G, Weitzman M.
Health Affairs. 2009 Jul-Aug;28(4):w751-60.
    This study uses the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to evaluate trends in obesity-associated hospitalizations, charges, and costs among children.

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The following are 2008 examples of peer-reviewed journal publications that feature data, software products, and tools from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).

The profitability of Medicare admissions based on source of admission
McHugh M, Regenstein M, Siegel B.
Academic Emergency Medicine. 2008 Oct;15(10):900-7.
    This study uses the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to investigate whether Medicare admissions from the emergency department have lower dollar margins than elective admissions and explores two possible reasons for differences in margins.

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Annual report on health care for children and youth in the United States: focus on injury-related emergency department utilization and expenditures
Owens PL, Zodet MW, Berdahl T, Dougherty D, McCormick MC, Simpson LA.
Ambulatory Pediatrics. 2008 Jul-Aug;8(4):219-240.e17.
    This retrospective analysis uses the State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) and the State Inpatient Databases (SID) to examine state differences in children's utilization of injury-related emergency department (ED) care across 14 states, benchmarking aggregate state estimates against national expenditure estimates for outpatient injury-related ED care.

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Outpatient cholecystectomy at hospitals versus freestanding ambulatory surgical centers
Paquette IM, Smink D, Finlayson SR.
Journal of American College of Surgeons. 2008 Feb;206(2):301-5.
    In an effort to inform payment policies related to outpatient cholecystectomies, this study uses the Florida State Ambulatory Surgery Database (SASD) to compare the patient characteristics, charges, outcomes, and processes of care of patients treated in hospitals with patients treated in ambulatory care centers.

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Patient safety indicators for England from hospital administrative data: case-control analysis and comparison with US data
Raleigh VS, Cooper J, Bremner SA, Scobie S.
British Medical Journal. 2008 Oct 17;337:a1702. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1702.
    This study uses AHRQ’s Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) to examine the feasibility of deriving patient safety indicators from hospital episode data for England; determine whether the indicators point to adverse outcomes for patients; and compare patient safety event rates, excess length of stay, and mortality in England with US data obtained from an analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS).

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Trends in intussusception hospitalizations among US infants, 1993-2004: implications for monitoring the safety of the new rotavirus vaccination program
Tate JE, Simonsen L, Viboud C, Steiner C, Patel MM, Curns AT, Parashar UD.
Pediatrics. 2008 May;121(5):e1125-32.
    Using the State Inpatient Databases (SID) from 16 states, this study assesses intussusception hospitalizations trends among US infants for 1993 to 2004; provides estimates of hospitalization rates for intussusception for 2002-2004; and evaluates variations in background rates by age, race/ethnicity, and surgical management.

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Internet Citation: Research Spotlights Archive. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). December 2018. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/spotlights_archive.jsp.
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