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KID Overview
The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) is a set of pediatric hospital inpatient databases included in the HCUP family. These databases are created by AHRQ through a Federal-State-Industry partnership.
 
Overview of the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID)

The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) is part of a family of databases and software tools developed for the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). HCUP inpatient data are based on administrative data—discharge abstracts created by hospitals for billing. The KID is the largest publicly-available all-payer pediatric inpatient care database in the United States. Unweighted, it contains data from approximately 3 million pediatric discharges each year. Weighted, it estimates roughly 7 million hospitalizations. The KID has been produced every three years (1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012). Hospital discharge data for 2015 contains a mix of ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM/PCS data (the first three quarters of 2015 contain ICD-9 data and the last quarter contains ICD-10). Because of the complexities of analyzing a mixed data year, the KID was not released for 2015 but was instead released for 2016. The 2016 KID is comprised of ICD-10-CM/PCS data only.

Developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HCUP data inform decisionmaking at the national, State, and community levels.

This page provides an overview of the KID. For more details, see KID Database Documentation and the Introduction to the KID, 2016 (PDF file, 1.0 MB; HTML).

Contents:

The KID yields national estimates of hospital inpatient stays for patients younger than 21 years of age. The unique design of the KID enables national and regional studies of common and rare pediatric conditions.

The KID can be used to identify, track, and analyze national trends in health care utilization, access, charges, quality, and outcomes.

KID data are available every three years from 1997 through 2012, and 2016, which allows researchers to analyze trends over time. The number of States in the KID has grown from 22 in the first year (1997) to 46 plus the District of Columbia in 2016.

Key features of the most recent KID database year (2016) include:
  • A sample of 10 percent of normal newborns and 80 percent of other pediatric discharges (age 20 or less at admission) from 4,200 U.S. community hospitals (defined as short-term, non-Federal, general and specialty hospitals, excluding hospital units of other institutions), excluding rehabilitation hospitals
  • A large sample size, which enables analyses of rare conditions (e.g. congenital anomalies) as well as, uncommon treatments (e.g. cardiac surgery)
  • Charge information on all patients, including children covered by Medicaid, or private insurance, as well as those who are uninsured
  • A full calendar year of data with diagnosis and procedure codes reported using the ICD-10-CM/PCS coding system (in place of the ICD-9-CM coding system)
  • Data elements derived from AHRQ Software Tools (e.g. Clinical Classification Software [CCS] and the Elixhauser Comorbidity Software) are not available in the 2016 KID because the ICD-10-CM/PCS versions are still under development. For users interested in applying the AHRQ software tools to the ICD-10-CM/PCS data in the 2016 KID, beta versions of the AHRQ software tools are available for download on the HCUP Tools & Software section of the HCUP-US Web site. A tutorial is available to users interested in applying the AHRQ software tools to the 2016 KID at www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/tech_assist/tutorials.jsp.
Free HCUP Tools & Software are also available to identify preventable hospitalizations, estimate costs, assess quality of care and patient safety, categorize diagnoses and procedures, and identify comorbidities.

Information on the previous releases of the KID may be found in the Introduction to the KID (PDF file, 1.0 MB; HTML).
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The 2016 KID is a calendar year file based on discharge date that includes diagnoses and procedure coded using only ICD-10-CM/PCS. The file structure of the 2016 KID is similar to previous years with one exception: data elements derived from AHRQ Software Tools are not available in the 2016 KID because the ICD-10-CM/PCS versions are still under development. For users interested in applying the AHRQ software tools to the ICD-10-CM/PCS data in the 2016 KID, beta versions of the AHRQ software tools are available for download on the HCUP Tools & Software section of the HCUP User Support (HCUP-US) Web site. A tutorial is available to users interested in applying the AHRQ software tools to the 2016 KID as part of the HCUP Online Tutorial Series.

More information about the changes to the HCUP databases for ICD-10-CM/PCS and use of data across the two coding systems may be found on the HCUP-US Web site under ICD-10-CM/PCS Resources.
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The KID contains clinical and resource-use information that is included in a typical discharge abstract, with safeguards to protect the privacy of individual patients, physicians, and hospitals (as required by data sources). It contains more than 100 clinical and nonclinical data elements for each hospital stay, including:
  • Primary and secondary diagnoses and procedures
  • Discharge status
  • Patient demographics (e.g., sex, age, race, median income for ZIP Code)
  • Hospital characteristics (e.g., ownership, size, teaching status, Census division)
  • Expected payment source
  • Total charges
  • Length of stay
  • Severity and prior to 2016, comorbidity measures
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As a uniform, multi-State database, the KID promotes comparative studies of health care services and supports health care policy research on a variety of topics, including:
  • Utilization of health services by special populations
  • Hospital stays for rare conditions
  • Variations in medical practice
  • Health care cost inflation
  • Medical treatment effectiveness
  • Regional and national analyses
  • Quality of care
  • Impact of health policy changes
  • Access to care
The KID is used in a variety of publications:

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Spanning 19 years of data, the KID can be used for longitudinal analyses; however the database underwent changes in 2000. To facilitate analysis of trends including the 1997 KID, an alternate set of KID discharge weights for the 1997 HCUP KID were developed. These trend weights were calculated in the same way as the weights for the 2000 and later years of the KID. (Trend analyses for 2000 and later data do not need the KID trends weights.) The report, Using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) to Estimate Trends, includes details regarding the KID trends weights and other recommendations for trends analysis. The KID trends report is available on the HCUP-US Web site at http://www.hcup-us.ahrg.gov/reports/methods/2007_02.pdf, and the KID trends weights are available on the HCUP-US Web site at https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/nation/kid/kidtrends.jsp
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The KID is released every 3 years, beginning with the 1997 data year; with the exception of the 2016 data year. The KID was not released in 2015 because of the transition to the ICD-10-CM/PCS coding system on October 1, 2015. The most recent release is the 2016 KID. The databases are available for purchase through the HCUP Central Distributor.

All HCUP data users, including data purchasers and collaborators, must complete the online HCUP Data Use Agreement Training Tool, and must read and sign the Data Use Agreement for Nationwide Databases (PDF file, 86 KB; HTML).

The KID is available for purchase online through the HCUP Central Distributor.

Questions regarding purchasing databases can be directed to the HCUP Central Distributor:

Email: HCUPDistributor@AHRQ.gov
Telephone: (866) 556-4287 (toll free)
Fax: (866) 792-5313 (toll free)

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The KID Database is distributed as fixed-width ASCII-formatted data files delivered via secure digital download from the Online HCUP Central Distributor. The files are compressed and encrypted with SecureZIP® from PKWARE. To load and analyze the NIS data on a computer, users will need the following:

  • The password provided by the HCUP Central Distributor
  • A hard drive with at least 10 gigabytes of space available
  • A third-party zip utility such as ZIP Reader, SecureZIP®, or WinZip®, or Stuffit Expander®. (The built-in utilities in Windows® and Macintosh® cannot decompress or decrypt these zip files and will produce an error message warning of incorrect password and/or file or folder errors.)
  • SAS®, SPSS®, Stata® or similar analysis software
The data set includes weights for producing national and regional estimates. KID documentation and tools, including programs for loading the ASCII file into SAS, SPSS, or Stata (beginning with 2006), are also available on the KID Database Documentation page.

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Internet Citation: HCUP Databases. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). September 2018. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/kidoverview.jsp.
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Last modified 9/17/18