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Sports-Related Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Inpatient Stays, 2013
STATISTICAL BRIEF #207


July 2016


Sports-Related Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Inpatient Stays, 2013


Audrey J. Weiss, Ph.D., and Anne Elixhauser, Ph.D.



Introduction

With most Americans engaging in some type of sports or physical fitness activity each year,1 it is important to understand the types of injuries that are most commonly seen in the hospital and emergency department (ED) and which sports account for those injuries. Prevention of sports-related injuries is part of the current research agenda of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.2

Sports and recreation-related injuries are a common type of injury seen in hospital EDs.3 Sports-related ED visits are most common among older children and young adults and among males.4 One recent study reported that, among children aged 5-18 years, the number of sports-related injuries seen in the ED across 21 selected sports increased annually between 2001 and 2013.5 Of the four sports that accounted for three-fourths of these sports-related injuries, football and soccer showed a significant increase in injuries from 2001 to 2013 whereas basketball and baseball showed a significant decrease in injuries.6

Some sports-related injuries are severe enough to require hospitalization.7 Certain types of sports-related injuries, such as concussions and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), have received increasing national attention. Between 2001 and 2009, there was an estimated 62 percent increase in sports-related TBI visits to the ED among children aged 19 years and under.8

This Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Brief presents data on the most common sports activities associated with two types of hospital use in 2013: inpatient stays and ED visits that were discharged. We examine the most common sports-related ED and hospital inpatient use by patient sex and age. Finally, we present the types of injuries most frequently associated with sports-related ED visits and inpatient stays.

This Statistical Brief is based upon external cause of injury diagnosis codes ("E codes") from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system used for hospital inpatient and ED discharge records. E codes provide supplemental information about the nature of the hospital stay or ED visit, but they are not mandatory for reporting in all instances.9 Consequently, the counts in this Statistical Brief are likely lower than the actual volume of sports-related ED visits and inpatient stays. Analysis suggests that E codes are present for over 90 percent of HCUP inpatient and ED visit records with an injury diagnosis, although E codes for sports injuries in particular were not examined.10 Nonetheless, we do not expect that any undercounting of sports E codes generally would affect the patterns reported here for the most common types of sports and injuries.

Findings

Frequency of sports-related emergency department and hospital inpatient use, 2013
Figure 1 presents sports-related ED and hospital inpatient use categorized by the general type of sports activity in 2013. Activities are sorted by the total number of sports-related ED visits (discharged) and inpatient stays combined. Appendix A lists the specific sports that constitute each general type of sports activity category; details on specific sports are described later in this report.
Highlights
  • The most common sports-related reasons for hospital use were bicycling, and walking, marching, and hiking. In 2013, bicycling accounted for 383,790 ED visits and 26,530 hospital stays. Walking, marching, and hiking resulted in 340,290 ED visits and 30,650 hospital stays.


  • Other top-ranked reasons for sport-related hospital use were basketball, football, school recess and summer camp, running, roller skating and skateboarding, soccer (ED only), baseball (ED only), downhill skiing and snowboarding (inpatient only), and horseback riding (inpatient only).


  • Among children, the most common sports-related reasons for hospital stays and ED visits included American tackle football (boys only), bicycle riding, and school recess and summer camp activities.


  • Bicycle riding was the most common sports-related reason for hospital stays and ED visits among males aged 18-64 years and females aged 18-44 years (inpatient only). Walking, marching, and hiking was the most common sports-related reason among males aged 65+ years and females aged 18-44 years (ED only) and 45+ years.


  • Sport-related hospital stays were primarily for fractures (59 percent of all sports-related stays) and intracranial injury (11 percent). Sports-related ED visits were for sprains (24 percent of all sports-related ED visits), fractures (21 percent), superficial injuries (18 percent), and open wounds (12 percent).


Figure 1. Number of sports-related emergency department visits (discharged) and hospital inpatient stays by general type of sports activity, 2013

Abbreviation: ED, emergency department
Note: For fewer than 1% of ED visits and inpatient stays, more than one sports activity was identified. In these cases, the visit or stay is counted separately for each identified sports activity.
a The "other specified sports and athletics" category includes boxing, wrestling, and martial arts.
b The "other muscle strengthening exercises" category includes exercise machines, free weights, and Pilates.
c The "other cardiorespiratory exercise" category includes calisthenics, aerobics, and circuit training.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2013


Figure 1 is a bar chart that shows the number of sports-related ED visits or inpatient stays by type of sports activity. Team or group sports: visits: 947,030; stays: 14,230. Individual sports: visits: 580,740; stays: 35,630. Walking and running: visits: 488,940; stays: 32,890. Sports, nonspecific: visits: 288,380; stays: 4,970. Ice and snow sports: visits: 134,770; stays: 7,170. Dancing and other rhythmic movement: visits: 113,330; stays: 1,770. Other specified sports and athletics: visits: 86,140; stays: 1,930. Water and water craft sports: visits: 77,610; stays: 3,750. Other muscle strengthening exercises: visits: 42,200; stays: 1,080. Climbing, rappelling, and jumping off: visits: 35,300; stays: 1,550. Other cardiorespiratory exercise: visits: 13,430; stays: 500.

  • Sports-related ED visits (discharged) were far more common than sports-related inpatient stays.

    In 2013 there were 2,807,880 ED visits and 105,490 hospital inpatient stays related to sports activities. Sports-related ED visits were 27 times more frequent than sports-related inpatient stays. In contrast, ED visits for any reason were only 3 times more common than inpatient stays for any reason (data not shown).


  • Team or group sports, individual sports, and walking and running constituted the majority of sports-related ED visits (discharged) and inpatient stays in 2013.

    In 2013, 71.8 percent of sports-related ED visits and 78.5 percent of sports-related inpatient stays were associated with one of three general types of sports activities: team or group sports (such as football, baseball, basketball, and soccer), individual sports (such as bicycle riding, roller skating, horseback riding, and golf), and walking and running.
Figure 2 ranks these general activities by the percentage of sports-related ED visits and hospital inpatient stays that each sport constitutes.


Figure 2. Percentage of sports-related emergency department visits (discharged) and hospital inpatient stays by general type of sports activity, 2013

Abbreviation: ED, emergency department
Note: For fewer than 1% of ED visits and inpatient stays, more than one sports activity was identified. In these cases, the visit or stay is counted separately for each identified sports activity.
a The "other specified sports and athletics" category includes boxing, wrestling, and martial arts.
b The "other muscle strengthening exercises" category includes exercise machines, free weights, and Pilates.
c The "other cardiorespiratory exercise" category includes calisthenics, aerobics, and circuit training.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2013


Figure 2 is a bar chart that shows the percentage of sports-related ED visits or inpatient stays by type of sports activity. Team or group sports: visits: 33.7; stays: 13.5. Individual sports: visits: 20.7; stays: 33.8. Walking and running: visits: 17.4; stays 31.2. Sports, nonspecific: visits: 10.3; stays: 4.7. Ice and snow sports: visits: 4.8; stays: 6.8. Dancing and other rhythmic movement: visits: 4.0; stays: 1.7. Other specified sports and athletics: visits: 3.1; stays: 1.8. Water and water craft sports: visits: 2.8; stays: 3.6. Other muscle strengthening exercises: visits: 1.5; stays: 1.0. Climbing, rappelling, and jumping off: visits: 1.3; stays: 1.5. Other cardiorespiratory exercise: visits: 0.5; stays: 0.5.

  • In 2013, about one-third of sports-related ED visits (discharged) involved team or group sports, whereas individual sports, and walking and running each constituted about one-third of sports-related inpatient stays.

    Team or group sports—such as football, basketball, and soccer—constituted one-third (33.7 percent) of all sports-related ED visits but only 13.5 percent of sports-related inpatient stays. The reverse was true for individual sports—such as bicycle riding and roller skating—and walking and running. Individual sports accounted for 33.8 percent of sports-related inpatient stays but only 20.7 percent of sports-related ED visits. Walking and running constituted 31.2 percent of sports-related inpatient stays but only 17.4 percent of sports-related ED visits.
Most common specific sports activities associated with ED and hospital inpatient use, 2013
Table 1 presents the 10 most common specific sports activities associated with ED visits (discharged) and hospital inpatient stays in 2013.


Table 1. Top 10 specific sports activities associated with emergency department visits (discharged) and hospital inpatient stays, 2013
Specific sports activity ED visits (discharged) Inpatient stays
Rank n % of all sports-related visits Rank n % of all sports-related visits
All sports activities   2,807,880 100.0   105,490 100.0
Bicycle riding 1 383,790 13.7 2 26,530 25.1
Walking, marching, and hiking 2 340,290 12.1 1 30,650 29.1
Other unspecified sports activitya 3 288,380 10.3 5 4,970 4.7
Basketball 4 268,580 9.6 10 2,020 1.9
American tackle football 5 211,220 7.5 7 2,830 2.7
School recess and summer campb 6 150,150 5.3 4 5,140 4.9
Running 7 148,650 5.3 8 2,240 2.1
Roller skating and skateboarding 8 143,780 5.1 6 4,600 4.4
Soccer 9 128,950 4.6      
Baseball 10 113,420 4.0      
Downhill skiing and snowboardingc       3 5,320 5.0
Horseback riding       9 2,220 2.1
Abbreviation: ED, emergency department
Note: For fewer than 1% of ED visits and inpatient stays, more than one sports activity was identified. In these cases, the visit or stay is counted separately for each identified sports activity.
a More specific information about the sports activity is not available in the ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes in this category.
b Physical games generally associated with school recess, summer camp, and children.
c Snow (alpine) (downhill) skiing, snowboarding, sledding, tobogganing, and snow tubing.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2013
  • Bicycle riding and walking, marching, and hiking were the two most common sports activities associated with both ED visits (discharged) and inpatient stays in 2013.

    The following were the most common specific reasons for a sports-related ED visit in 2013:

    • Bicycle riding (13.7 percent of all sports-related ED visits)
    • Walking, marching, and hiking (12.1 percent)
    • Basketball (9.6 percent)
    • American tackle football (7.5 percent)


    The following were the most common reasons for a sports-related inpatient stay in 2013:

    • Walking, marching, and hiking (29.1 percent of all sports-related inpatient stays)
    • Bicycle riding (25.1 percent)
    • Downhill skiing and snowboarding (5.0 percent)
    • School recess and summer camp activities (4.9 percent)


    Soccer and baseball were among the 10 most common reasons for sports-related ED visits but not for inpatient stays. Downhill skiing and snowboarding, and horseback riding were among the 10 most common reasons for sports-related inpatient stays but not for ED visits.


Table 2 focuses on ED visits and presents the five most common sports activities associated with ED visits for males and females across age groups in 2013.


Table 2. Top five sports activities associated with emergency department visits (discharged), by patient sex and age group, 2013
Rank ED visits for males ED visits for females
Sports activity n %a Sports activity n %a
Ages <18 years 1,018,630 100.0 Ages <18 years 516,780 100.0
1 American tackle football 167,350 16.4 School recess and summer campc 66,230 12.8
2 Other unspecified sports activityb 138,470 13.6 Bicycle riding 50,870 9.8
3 Bicycle riding 120,170 11.8 Other unspecified sports activityb 48,330 9.4
4 Basketball 118,140 11.6 Running 40,520 7.8
5 School recess and summer campc 76,920 7.6 Soccer 40,320 7.8
Ages 18-44 years 602,410 100.0 Ages 18-44 years 255,490 100.0
1 Bicycle riding 96,570 16.0 Walking, marching, and hiking 65,330 25.6
2 Basketball 96,180 16.0 Bicycle riding 29,310 11.5
3 Other unspecified sports activityb 73,220 12.2 Other unspecified sports activityb 16,200 6.3
4 Walking, marching, and hiking 42,920 7.1 Running 16,180 6.3
5 Roller skating and skateboarding 37,780 6.3 Roller skating and skateboarding 14,480 5.7
Ages 45-64 years 150,850 100.0 Ages 45-64 years 122,780 100.0
1 Bicycle riding 52,680 34.9 Walking, marching, and hiking 60,200 49.0
2 Walking, marching, and hiking 32,250 21.4 Bicycle riding 19,360 15.8
3 Other unspecified sports activityb 7,740 5.1 Running 5,140 4.2
4 Basketball 6,130 4.1 Downhill skiing and snowboardingd 4,260 3.5
5 Downhill skiing and snowboardingd 5,990 4.0 Roller skating and skateboarding 3,470 2.8
Ages 65+ years 57,170 100.0 Ages 65+ years 83,680 100.0
1 Walking, marching, and hiking 31,060 54.3 Walking, marching, and hiking 66,730 79.7
2 Bicycle riding 10,400 18.2 Bicycle riding 4,400 5.3
3 Golf 2,010 3.5 Ice and snow, other activity 1,200 1.4
4 Downhill skiing and snowboardingd 1,580 2.8 Running 1,090 1.3
5 Running 1,270 2.2 Dancing 1,020 1.2
Abbreviation: ED, emergency department
Notes: For fewer than 1% of ED visits, more than one sports activity was identified. In these cases, the visit is counted separately for each identified sports activity.
a The tabled % value refers to the percentage of all sports-related ED visits for the specified sex-age group.
b More specific information about the sports activity is not available in the ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes in this category.
c Physical games generally associated with school recess, summer camp, and children.
d Snow (alpine) (downhill) skiing, snowboarding, sledding, tobogganing, and snow tubing.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2013


  • Among children and younger adults, males had about twice as many sports-related ED visits (discharged) as did females.

    There were twice as many sports-related ED visits among male children (just over 1 million) as among female children (approximately 517,000). This pattern held among 18-44-year-olds as well—there were over 600,000 sports-related ED visits among males compared with approximately 255,000 visits among females.

    Among 45-64-year-olds, the number of sports-related ED visits for males (150,850) and females (122,780) were more similar. In the oldest age group, females had more sports-related ED visits (83,680) than did males (57,170). This sex differential held even when adjusting for the relatively larger population of older females, with a rate of 333.3 sports-related ED visits per 100,000 female population aged 65 years and older versus 291.7 per 100,000 male population aged 65 years and older (data not shown).


  • Among children, the most common sports-related reasons for ED visits (discharged) were American tackle football (males only), school recess and summer camp activities, and bicycle riding.

    Among male children under 18 years, American tackle football accounted for over 16 percent of all sports-related ED visits. Bicycle riding, and school recess and summer camp activities were among the five most common sports activities associated with ED visits for both male and female children. For male children, basketball also was a common reason for sports-related ED visits (constituting 11.6 percent of all sports-related ED visits) whereas running and soccer were common for female children (each constituting 7.8 percent of visits).


  • Among males aged 18-64 years, bicycle riding was the most common sports-related reason for ED visits (discharged).

    Bicycle riding was the most common sports-related reason for ED visits among adult males aged 18-44 years (96,570 visits) and aged 45-64 years (52,680 visits). Among 18-44-year-old males, basketball was a close second with 96,180 visits.

    Among adult females of all ages, walking, marching, and hiking was by far the most common sports-related reason for ED visits—accounting for about a quarter of sports-related ED visits for 18-44-year-olds, nearly half of 45-64-year-old visits, and over three-quarters of sports-related ED visits for women aged 65 years and older. Bicycling was the second most common sports-related reason for ED visits among females but was far less common, especially in the older age groups.

    The following were other common reasons for sports-related ED visits among adults:

    • Running—females of all ages
    • Downhill skiing and snowboarding—males aged 45 years and older and females aged 45-64 years
    • Roller skating and skateboarding—males and females aged 18-44 years and females aged 45-64 years
    Among those aged 65 years and older, the most common sports-related reasons for ED visits included golf for males and dancing for females.
Table 3 focuses on hospital inpatient stays and presents the five most common sports activities associated with hospital stays for males and females across age groups in 2013.


Table 3. Top five sports activities associated with hospital inpatient stays, by patient sex and age group, 2013
Rank Inpatient stays for males Inpatient stays for females
Sports activity n %a Sports activity n %a
Ages <18 years 18,860 100.0 Ages <18 years 6,990 100.0
1 Bicycle riding 3,850 20.4 School recess and summer campb 2,070 29.6
2 School recess and summer campb 2,680 14.2 Bicycle riding 1,100 15.7
3 Other unspecified sports activityc 2,300 12.2 Other unspecified sports activityc 430 6.2
4 American tackle football 2,050 10.9 Downhill skiing and snowboardingd 350 5.0
5 Roller skating and skateboarding 1,570 8.3 Roller skating and skateboarding 330 4.7
Ages 18-44 years 21,090 100.0 Ages 18-44 years 6,570 100.0
1 Bicycle riding 6,730 31.9 Bicycle riding 1,580 24.0
2 Downhill skiing and snowboardingd 1,630 7.7 Walking, marching, and hiking 1,110 16.9
3 Other unspecified sports activityc 1,540 7.3 Roller skating and skateboarding 600 9.1
4 Roller skating and skateboarding 1,530 7.3 Downhill skiing and snowboardingd 500 7.6
5 Walking, marching, and hiking 1,510 7.2 Horseback riding 390 5.9
Ages 45-64 years 14,540 100.0 Ages 45-64 years 8,550 100.0
1 Bicycle riding 7,510 51.7 Walking, marching, and hiking 3,380 39.5
2 Walking, marching, and hiking 2,620 18.0 Bicycle riding 2,220 26.0
3 Downhill skiing and snowboardingd 920 6.3 Downhill skiing and snowboardingd 650 7.6
4 Horseback riding 420 2.9 Horseback riding 600 7.0
5 Other unspecified sports activityb 260 1.8 Roller skating and skateboarding 240 2.8
Ages 65+ years 11,510 100.0 Ages 65+ years 17,330 100.0
1 Walking, marching, and hiking 6,580 57.2 Walking, marching, and hiking 14,750 85.1
2 Bicycle riding 2,800 24.3 Bicycle riding 710 4.1
3 Downhill skiing and snowboardingd 330 2.9 Ice and snow, other activity 250 1.4
4 Ice and snow, other activity 230 2.0 Other muscle strengthening 190 1.1
5 Horseback riding 220 1.9 Horseback riding 150 0.9
Notes: For fewer than 1% of inpatient stays, more than one sports activity was identified. In these cases, the stay is counted separately for each identified sports activity.
a The tabled % value refers to the percentage of all sports-related inpatient stays for the specified sex-age group.
b Physical games generally associated with school recess, summer camp, and children.
c More specific information about the sports activity is not available in the ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes in this category.
d Snow (alpine) (downhill) skiing, snowboarding, sledding, tobogganing, and snow tubing.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), National Inpatient Sample (NIS), 2013


  • As shown for sports-related ED visits, males accounted for more sports-related inpatient stays than females in all age groups except for those aged 65 years and older.

    There were more than twice as many sports-related inpatient stays among male children compared with female children (18,860 vs. 6,990) and more than 3 times as many sports-related inpatient stays for males aged 18-44 years compared with females in that age group (21,090 vs. 6,570).

    Similarly, among 45-64-year-olds, there were more sports-related inpatient stays for males (14,540) than for females (8,550). In the oldest age group, females had more sports-related inpatient stays than did males (17,330 vs. 11,510). This sex differential held even when adjusting for the relatively larger population of older females, with a rate of 69.0 sports-related inpatient stays per 100,000 female population aged 65 years and older versus 58.7 per 100,000 male population aged 65 years and older (data not shown).


  • Among children, the most common sports-related reasons for hospital inpatient stays were bicycle riding, and school recess and summer camp activities.

    Among children under 18 years, bicycle riding, and school recess and summer camp activities were the two most common sports associated with inpatient stays for both males and females. For males, bicycling ranked first, accounting for over 20 percent of sports-related inpatient stays. For females, school recess and summer camp activities ranked first, accounting for 30 percent of sports-related inpatient stays.

    Among male children, American tackle football was common among sports-related inpatient stays (10.9 percent) whereas downhill skiing and snowboarding was in the top 5 for females (5.0 percent). Roller skating and skateboarding also was in the five sports activities most frequently associated with inpatient stays for both male and female children.


  • Among adult males aged 18-64 years, bicycle riding was the most common sports-related reason for hospital inpatient stays.

    Bicycle riding was the most common sports-related reason for inpatient stays among young and middle-aged adult males, constituting nearly a third of all sports-related inpatient stays for 18-44-year-olds (31.9 percent) and over half of sports-related stays for 45-64-year-olds (51.7 percent). Bicycle riding was the second most common reason for sports-related inpatient stays among males aged 65 years and older, after walking, marching, and hiking, which accounted for over half of all sports-related stays in this age group (57.2 percent).

    Among females aged 18-44 years, bicycle riding was the number one reason for sports-related inpatient stays, constituting nearly a quarter (24.0 percent) of stays. For females aged 45-64 years, bicycle riding was the second most common reason for sports-related inpatient stays (26.0 percent), after walking, marching, and hiking, which accounted for 39.5 percent of sports-related stays.

    The following are other common reasons for sports-related inpatient stays among adults:

    • Downhill skiing and snowboarding—which accounted for 6-8 percent of sports-related stays for adult males and females aged 18-64 years
    • Horseback riding—adult females of all ages and males aged 45 years and older
    • Roller skating and skateboarding—males and females aged 18-44 years and females aged 45-64 years
Most common injuries associated with sports-related ED and hospital inpatient use, 2013
Figure 3 presents information on the types of injuries associated with sports-related ED visits (discharged) and hospital inpatient stays in 2013.


Figure 3. Primary type of injurya associated with sports-related emergency department visits (discharged) and hospital inpatient stays, 2013

Abbreviation: ED, emergency department
Note: For fewer than 1% of ED visits and inpatient stays, more than one sports activity was identified. In these cases, the visit or stay is counted separately for each identified sports activity.
a Type of injury was based on the Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) principal diagnosis.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2013


Figure 3 is a two-part pie chart—one part shows the percentage of discharged ED visits and the other shows the percentage of inpatient stays, both broken out by primary type of injury. Emergency department visits: sprain: 24; fracture: 21; superficial injury: 18; other injury: 14; open wound: 12; other diagnosis: 6; intracranial injury: 5. Inpatient stays: fracture: 59; other diagnosis: 14; intracranial injury: 11; other injury: 10; crushing injury: 6.

  • The most common injuries for sports-related ED visits (discharged) were sprains, fractures, and superficial injuries, accounting for nearly two-thirds of all visits (63 percent). Fractures and intracranial injury accounted for 70 percent of all sports-related inpatient stays.

    The most common types of injuries among sports-related ED visits were sprains (24 percent), fractures (21 percent), and superficial injuries (18 percent). Other common, specific types of injuries included open wounds (12 percent) and intracranial injuries (5 percent).

    The most common types of injuries among sports-related inpatient stays were fractures (59 percent), intracranial injuries (11 percent), and crushing injuries (6 percent).

    Other noninjury diagnoses reported frequently as primary reasons for sports-related ED visits included: other nontraumatic joint disorders, spondylosis (back problems), headache, syncope (fainting), and nonspecific chest pain. Other noninjury diagnoses reported frequently as primary reasons for sports-related inpatient stays included: skin or tissue infection, other connective tissue disease, septicemia, syncope, spondylosis, and cardiac dysrhythmias.
Figure 4 focuses on ED visits and provides additional details on the types of injuries for the 10 most common sports activities associated with ED visits in 2013.


Figure 4. Primary type of injurya among the 10 most common sports activities associated with emergency department visits (discharged), 2013

Abbreviation: ED, emergency department
Note: For fewer than 1% of ED visits, more than one sports activity was identified. In these cases, the visit is counted separately for each identified sports activity.
a Type of injury was based on the Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) principal diagnosis.
b More specific information about the sports activity is not available in the ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes in this category.
c Physical games generally associated with school recess, summer camp, and children.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2013


Figure 4 is a stacked bar chart that shows the percentage of discharged ED visits by primary type of injury among the 10 most common sports activities. Bicycle riding: sprain: 11; fracture: 22; superficial injury: 26; open wound: 19; intracranial injury: 4; other injury: 13; other diagnosis: 6. Walking, marching, and hiking: sprain: 24; fracture: 18; superficial injury: 20; open wound: 15; intracranial injury: 2; other injury: 12; other diagnosis: 10. Other unspecified sports activity: sprain: 19; fracture: 18; superficial injury: 21; open wound: 12; intracranial injury: 7; other injury: 16; other diagnosis: 5. Basketball: sprain: 40; fracture: 16; superficial injury: 11; open wound: 10; intracranial injury: 3; other injury: 14; other diagnosis: 5. American tackle football: sprain: 27; fracture: 21; superficial injury: 16; open wound: 4; intracranial injury: 9; other injury: 17; other diagnosis: 6. School recess and summer camp: sprain: 13; fracture: 42; superficial injury: 15; open wound: 10; intracranial injury: 3; other injury: 13; other diagnosis: 5. Running: sprain: 28; fracture: 14; superficial injury: 15; open wound: 24; intracranial injury: 2; other injury: 12; other diagnosis: 6. Roller skating and skateboarding: sprain: 21; fracture: 33; superficial injury: 17; open wound: 9; intracranial injury: 3; other injury: 11; other diagnosis: 5. Soccer: sprain: 31; other injury: 21; superficial injury: 15; open wound: 6; intracranial injury: 6; other injury: 15; other diagnosis: 5. Baseball: sprain: 23; fracture: 19; superficial injury: 24; open wound: 10; intracranial injury: 4; other injury: 15; other diagnosis: 5.

  • The most common injuries among sports-related ED visits (discharged) included sprains—seen in 40 percent of basketball-related visits—and fractures—seen in 42 percent of visits related to school recess and summer camp activities.

    Among the 10 most common sports activities associated with ED visits in 2013 (from Table 1), the frequency of types of injuries varied by specific sports activity:

    • Sprains—basketball (40 percent); soccer (31 percent); running (28 percent); American tackle football (27 percent); walking, marching, and hiking (24 percent); baseball (23 percent); and roller skating and skateboarding (21 percent)
    • Fractures—school recess and summer camp activities (42 percent), roller skating and skateboarding (33 percent), bicycle riding (22 percent), American tackle football (21 percent), and soccer (21 percent)
    • Superficial injuries—bicycle riding (26 percent), baseball (24 percent), and walking, marching, and hiking (20 percent)
    • Open wounds—running (24 percent) and bicycle riding (19 percent)
    • Intracranial injury—tackle football (9 percent)
Figure 5 focuses on hospital inpatient stays and presents information on the types of injuries for the 10 most common sports activities associated with inpatient stays in 2013.


Figure 5. Primary type of injurya among the 10 most common sports activities associated with hospital inpatient stays, 2013

Note: For fewer than 1% of inpatient stays, more than one sports activity was identified. In these cases, the visit or stay is counted separately for each identified sports activity.
a Type of injury was based on the Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) principal diagnosis.
b Snow (alpine) (downhill) skiing, snowboarding, sledding, tobogganing, and snow tubing.
c Physical games generally associated with school recess, summer camp, and children.
d More specific information about the sports activity is not available in the ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes in this category.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), National Inpatient Sample (NIS), 2013


Figure 5 is a stacked bar chart that shows the percentage of inpatient stays by primary type of injury among the 10 most common sports activities. Walking, marching, and hiking: fracture: 59; intracranial injury: 8; crushing injury: 2; other injury: 8; other diagnosis: 24. Bicycle riding: fracture: 55; intracranial injury: 18; crushing injury: 9; other injury: 9; other diagnosis: 8. Downhill skiing and snowboarding: fracture: 72; intracranial injury: 7; crushing injury: 12; other injury: 6; other diagnosis: 3. School recess and summer camp: fracture: 84; intracranial injury: 7; crushing injury: 3; other injury: 4; other diagnosis: 3. Other unspecified sports activity: fracture: 55; intracranial injury: 13; crushing injury: 10; other injury: 13; other diagnosis: 10. Roller skating and skateboarding: fracture: 64; intracranial injury: 22; crushing injury: 3; other injury: 4; other diagnosis: 7. American tackle football: fracture: 55; intracranial injury: 8; crushing injury: 11; other injury: 15; other diagnosis: 10. Running: fracture: 55; intracranial injury: 8; crushing injury: 4; other injury: 14; other diagnosis: 18. Horseback riding: fracture: 60; intracranial injury: 13; crushing injury: 16; other injury: 6; other diagnosis: 6. Basketball: fracture: 55; intracranial injury: 8; crushing injury: 4; other injury: 22; other diagnosis: 11.



  • Fractures accounted for more than half of inpatient stays for each of the 10 most common sports-related reasons for hospitalization.

    Among the 10 most common sports activities associated with inpatient stays in 2013 (from Table 1), fracture was the most frequent type of injury. Fractures accounted for more than half of inpatient stays for each sports activity, reaching as high as 84 percent of sports-related inpatient stays involving school recess and summer camp activities, 72 percent of stays related to downhill skiing and snowboarding, and 64 percent of roller skating and skateboarding-related stays.


  • Sports-related inpatient stays for intracranial injury were most common for roller skating and skateboarding. Stays for crushing injury were most common for horseback riding.

    Among the 10 most common sports activities associated with inpatient stays in 2013, intracranial injury was most frequent for roller skating and skateboarding (22 percent) and bicycle riding (18 percent). Crushing injury was most frequent for horseback riding (16 percent) and downhill skiing and snowboarding (12 percent).


Appendix A. Number of emergency department visits (discharged) and hospital inpatient stays associated with sports-related activities, by general type of and specific sports activity, 2013
Sports activity ED visits (discharged), n Inpatient stays, n
All activities 2,807,880 105,490
Walking and running 488,940 32,890
Walking, marching, and hiking 340,290 30,650
Running 148,650 2,240
Water and water craft sports 77,610 3,750
Swimming 26,750 770
Springboard and platform diving 8,340 860
Water polo 1,000 *
Water aerobics and water exercise 120 *
Underwater diving and snorkeling 3,100 210
Rowing, canoeing, kayaking, rafting, and tubing 5,340 170
Water skiing and wake boarding 6,080 420
Surfing, windsurfing, and boogie boarding 11,620 340
Water sliding 3,180 *
Water and watercraft 12,090 900
Ice and snow sports 134,770 7,170
Ice skating 12,530 360
Ice hockey 14,540 290
Snow (alpine) (downhill) skiing, snowboarding, sledding, tobogganing, and snow tubing 91,210 5,320
Cross-country skiing 620 *
Ice and snow, other activity 15,870 1,150
Climbing, rappelling, and jumping off 35,300 1,550
Mountain climbing, rock climbing, and wall climbing 3,380 370
Rappelling 180 *
BASE jumping 740 *
Bungee jumping 100 *
Hang gliding 130 *
Climbing, rappelling, and jumping off, other activity 30,760 1,050
Dancing and other rhythmic movement 113,330 1,770
Dancing 22,880 480
Yoga 1,010 *
Gymnastics 22,310 240
Trampoline 43,050 810
Cheerleading 18,490 *
Dancing and other rhythmic movements, other activity 5,574 150
Other sports and athletics played individually 580,740 35,630
Roller skating (inline) and skateboarding 143,780 4,600
Horseback riding 18,830 2,220
Golf 8,430 510
Bicycle riding (total) 383,790 26,530
- Bicycle riding - Motor vehicle traffic 49,230 6,810
- Bicycle riding - Nontraffic vehicle 2,370 240
- Bicycle riding - Other bicycle accident 332,190 19,470
Jumping rope 1,490 *
Nonrunning track and field events 1,070 *
Other sports and athletics played individually, other activity 18,110 1,540
Other sports and athletics played as a team or group 947,030 14,230
American tackle football 211,220 2,830
American flag or touch football 10,280 150
Rugby 6,640 140
Baseball 113,420 1,370
Lacrosse and field hockey 15,640 170
Soccer 128,950 1,820
Basketball 268,580 2,020
Volleyball (beach) (court) 27,870 170
Physical games generally associated with school recess, summer camp, and children 150,150 5,140
Other sports and athletics played as a team or group, other activity 14,270 400
Other specified sports and athletics 86,140 1,930
Boxing 6,390 110
Wrestling 40,920 490
Racquet and hand sports 9,800 150
Frisbee 2,830 *
Martial arts 15,450 160
Other specified sports and athletics activity 10,750 940
Other cardiorespiratory exercise 13,430 500
Exercise machines primarily for cardiorespiratory conditioning 4,900 230
Calisthenics 1,420 *
Aerobic and step exercise 1,800 *
Circuit training 220 *
Obstacle course 590 *
Grass drills 150 *
Cardiorespiratory exercise, other activity 4,370 200
Other muscle strengthening exercises 42,200 1,080
Exercise machines primarily for muscle strengthening 3,560 120
Push-ups, pull-ups, sit-ups 4,300 *
Free weights 21,300 300
Pilates 160 580
Sports activity, not elsewhere classified 288,380 4,970
Abbreviations: BASE, building, antenna, span, earth; ED, Emergency department
Note: For fewer than 1% of ED visits and inpatient stays, more than one sports activity was identified. In these cases, the visit or stay is counted separately for each identified sports activity.
* Indicates fewer than 100 discharge records.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2013


Data Source

The estimates in this Statistical Brief are based upon data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) 2013 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS).

Definitions

Diagnoses, ICD-9-CM, and Clinical Classifications Software (CCS)
The principal diagnosis is that condition established after study to be chiefly responsible for the patient's admission to the hospital. Secondary diagnoses are concomitant conditions that coexist at the time of admission or develop during the stay. All-listed diagnoses include the principal diagnosis plus these additional secondary conditions.

ICD-9-CM is the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, which assigns numeric codes to diagnoses. There are approximately 14,000 ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes.

CCS categorizes ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes or procedure codes into a manageable number of clinically meaningful categories.11 This clinical grouper makes it easier to quickly understand patterns of diagnoses or procedure use. CCS categories identified as Other typically are not reported; these categories include miscellaneous, otherwise unclassifiable diagnoses or procedures that may be difficult to interpret as a group.

Case definition
In this study we focused on identifying sports activities using the ICD-9-CM "activity" external cause of injury codes (E codes), E001-E030, as presented in Table 4. We also searched to identify any other E codes that could indicate that the hospital stay or emergency department (ED) visit was associated with a sports activity. These additional E codes that were included as part of a specific sports activity category also are provided in Table 4. Finally, we included three E codes (E886.0, E917.0, and E917.5) that specified that an injury occurred during sports, but there was no further information provided (i.e., by a more specific E code on the record) to indicate which specific sports activity was involved. These records are coded to the "other unspecified sports" (sports not elsewhere classified) category.


Table 4. ICD-9-CM E codes identifying sports activities
ICD-9-CM activity E code Sports activity description ICD-9-CM other E code Other E code description
Walking and running
E001.0 Walking, marching, and hiking    
E001.1 Running    
Water and water craft sports
E002.0 Swimming E830.5, E831.5, E832.5, E833.5, E834.5, E835.5, E836.5, E837.5, E838.5 Water transport accidents injuring swimmer
E002.1 Springboard and platform diving E883.0 Accident from diving or jumping into water (swimming pool)
E002.2 Water polo    
E002.3 Water aerobics and water exercise    
E002.4 Underwater diving and snorkeling E902.2 High and low air pressure and changes in air pressure - due to diving
E910.1 Accidental drowning and submersion while engaged in other sport or recreational activity with diving equipment
E002.5 Rowing, canoeing, kayaking, rafting, and tubing    
E002.6 Water skiing and wakeboarding E830.4, E831.4, E832.4, E833.4, E834.4, E835.4, E836.4, E837.4, E838.4 Water transport accidents injuring water skier
E910.0 Accidental drowning and submersion while water skiing
E002.7 Surfing, windsurfing, and boogie boarding    
E002.8 Water sliding    
E002.9 Water and watercraft E910.2 Accidental drowning and submersion while engaged in other sport or recreational activity without diving equipment
Ice and snow sports
E003.0 Ice skating    
E003.1 Ice hockey    
E003.2 Snow (alpine) (downhill) skiing, snowboarding, sledding, tobogganing, and snow tubing E885.3, E885.4 Fall from skis, snowboard
E003.3 Cross-country skiing    
E003.9 Ice and snow, other activity    
Climbing, rappelling, and jumping off
E004.0 Mountain climbing, rock climbing, and wall climbing    
E004.1 Rappelling    
E004.2 BASE jumping    
E004.3 Bungee jumping    
E004.4 Hang gliding    
E004.9 Climbing, rappelling, and jumping off, other activity    
Dancing and other rhythmic movement
E005.0 Dancing    
E005.1 Yoga    
E005.2 Gymnastics    
E005.3 Trampoline    
E005.4 Cheerleading    
E005.9 Dancing and other rhythmic movements, other activity    
Other sports and athletics played individually
E006.0 Roller skating (inline) and skateboarding E885.1, E885.2 Fall from roller skates, skateboard
E006.1 Horseback riding    
E006.2 Golf    
E006.3 Bowling    
E006.4 Bicycle riding E800.3, E801.3, E802.3, E803.3, E804.3, E805.3, E806.3, E807.3 Railway accidents injuring pedal cyclist
E810.6, E811.6, E812.6, E813.6, E814.6, E815.6, E816.6, E817.6, E818.6, E819.6 Motor vehicle traffic accidents injuring pedal cyclist
E820.6, E821.6, E822.6, E823.6, E824.6, E825.6 Motor vehicle nontraffic accidents injuring pedal cyclist
E826.1 Pedal cycle accident injuring pedal cyclist
E006.5 Jumping rope    
E006.6 Nonrunning track and field events    
E006.6 Nonrunning track and field events    
E006.9 Other sports and athletics played individually, other activity    
Other sports and athletics played as a team or group
E007.0 American tackle football    
E007.1 American flag or touch football    
E007.2 Rugby    
E007.3 Baseball    
E007.4 Lacrosse and field hockey    
E007.5 Soccer    
E007.6 Basketball    
E007.7 Volleyball (beach) (court)    
E007.8 Physical games generally associated with school recess, summer camp, and children E884.0 Fall from playground equipment
E007.9 Other sports and athletics played as a team or group, other activity    
Other specified sports and athletics
E008.0 Boxing    
E008.1 Wrestling    
E008.2 Racquet and hand sports    
E008.3 Frisbee    
E008.4 Martial arts    
E008.9 Other specified sports and athletics activity    
Other cardiorespiratory exercise
EE009.0 Exercise machines primarily for cardiorespiratory conditioning    
EE009.1 Calisthenics    
EE009.2 Aerobic and step exercise    
EE009.3 Circuit training    
EE009.4 Obstacle course    
EE009.5 Grass drills    
EE009.9 Cardiorespiratory exercise, other activity    
Other muscle strengthening exercises
E010.0 Exercise machines primarily for muscle strengthening    
E010.1 Push-ups, pull-ups, sit-ups    
E010.2 Free weights    
E010.3 Pilates    
E010.9 Other muscle strengthening exercises, other activity    
Sports activity, not elsewhere classified
  Other unspecified sports activity E886.0 Fall on same level from collision, pushing, or shoving, by or with other person - in sports
E917.0, E917.5 Striking against or struck accidentally by objects or persons in sports, without or with subsequent fall
Abbreviation: BASE, building, antenna, span, earth


Each relevant E code was classified into one of three categories:

  1. Nonspecific Sports E Codes: E002.9, E003.9, E004.9, E005.9, E006.9, E007.9, E008.9, E009.9, E010.9
  2. Sports NEC ("not elsewhere classified") Codes: E886.0, E917.0, E917.5
  3. Specific Sports E Codes: all other codes listed in the Sports E Codes
Each discharge record (ED visit that resulted in discharge or hospital inpatient stay) was classified into one or more of the sports activity categories based on the following rules:

  1. If a Specific Sports E Code was present anywhere on the record, then the record was classified into that sports activity.
  2. If no Specific Sports E Codes were present anywhere on the record, then:
    • If a Nonspecific Sports E Code was present anywhere on the record, the record was classified into that sports activity.
  3. If no Specific Sports E Codes and no Nonspecific Sports E Codes were present anywhere on the record, then:
    • If a Sports NEC Code was present anywhere on the record, the record was classified into the "Other unspecified sports activity" category.
For bicycle riding, each discharge record was further subset into one of three categories based on the following hierarchy:

  1. If any one of the following codes was on the record—E810.6, E811.6, E812.6, E813.6, E814.6, E815.6, E816.6, E817.6, E818.6, E819.6—then the record was classified as bicycle riding: motor vehicle traffic.
  2. Else, if any of the following codes were on the record—E800.3, E801.3, E802.3, E803.3, E804.3, E805.3, E806.3, E807.3, E820.6, E821.6, E822.6, E823.6, E824.6, E825.6—then the record was classified as bicycle riding: nontraffic vehicle.
  3. Else, the record was classified as bicycle riding: other bicycle.
Note that the following E codes associated with gun-related injuries were not included in any of the categories of sports activities examined in this Statistical Brief.


Table 5. Gun-related ICD-9-CM E codes not included
ICD-9-CM E code Description
E922.2 Accident caused by hunting rifle
E922.4 Accident caused by air gun
E922.5 Accident caused by paintball gun


Types of hospitals included in the HCUP National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample
The National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) is based on data from community hospitals, which are defined as short-term, non-Federal, general, and other hospitals, excluding hospital units of other institutions (e.g., prisons). The NIS includes obstetrics and gynecology, otolaryngology, orthopedic, cancer, pediatric, public, and academic medical hospitals. Excluded are long-term care facilities such as rehabilitation, psychiatric, and alcoholism and chemical dependency hospitals. Beginning in 2012, long-term acute care hospitals are also excluded. However, if a patient received long-term care, rehabilitation, or treatment for a psychiatric or chemical dependency condition in a community hospital, the discharge record for that stay will be included in the NIS.

Types of hospitals included in the HCUP Nationwide Emergency Department Sample
The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) is based on data from community hospitals, which are defined as short-term, non-Federal, general, and other hospitals, excluding hospital units of other institutions (e.g., prisons). The NEDS includes specialty, pediatric, public, and academic medical hospitals. Excluded are long-term care facilities such as rehabilitation, psychiatric, and alcoholism and chemical dependency hospitals. Hospitals included in the NEDS have hospital-owned emergency departments and no more than 90 percent of their ED visits resulting in admission.

Unit of analysis
The unit of analysis is the hospital discharge (i.e., the hospital stay) or the ED encounter, not a person or patient. This means that a person who is admitted to the hospital or seen in the ED multiple times in 1 year will be counted each time as a separate discharge from the hospital or encounter in the ED.

About HCUP

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP, pronounced "H-Cup") is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). HCUP databases bring together the data collection efforts of State data organizations, hospital associations, and private data organizations (HCUP Partners) and the Federal government to create a national information resource of encounter-level health care data. HCUP includes the largest collection of longitudinal hospital care data in the United States, with all-payer, encounter-level information beginning in 1988. These databases enable research on a broad range of health policy issues, including cost and quality of health services, medical practice patterns, access to health care programs, and outcomes of treatments at the national, State, and local market levels.

HCUP would not be possible without the contributions of the following data collection Partners from across the United States:

Alaska State Hospital and Nursing Home Association
Arizona Department of Health Services
Arkansas Department of Health
California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development
Colorado Hospital Association
Connecticut Hospital Association
District of Columbia Hospital Association
Florida Agency for Health Care Administration
Georgia Hospital Association
Hawaii Health Information Corporation
Illinois Department of Public Health
Indiana Hospital Association
Iowa Hospital Association
Kansas Hospital Association
Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals
Maine Health Data Organization
Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission
Massachusetts Center for Health Information and Analysis
Michigan Health & Hospital Association
Minnesota Hospital Association
Mississippi Department of Health
Missouri Hospital Industry Data Institute
Montana MHA - An Association of Montana Health Care Providers
Nebraska Hospital Association
Nevada Department of Health and Human Services
New Hampshire Department of Health & Human Services
New Jersey Department of Health
New Mexico Department of Health
New York State Department of Health
North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services
North Dakota (data provided by the Minnesota Hospital Association)
Ohio Hospital Association
Oklahoma State Department of Health
Oregon Association of Hospitals and Health Systems
Oregon Office of Health Analytics
Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council
Rhode Island Department of Health
South Carolina Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office
South Dakota Association of Healthcare Organizations
Tennessee Hospital Association
Texas Department of State Health Services
Utah Department of Health
Vermont Association of Hospitals and Health Systems
Virginia Health Information
Washington State Department of Health
West Virginia Health Care Authority
Wisconsin Department of Health Services
Wyoming Hospital Association

About Statistical Briefs

HCUP Statistical Briefs are descriptive summary reports presenting statistics on hospital inpatient and emergency department use and costs, quality of care, access to care, medical conditions, procedures, patient populations, and other topics. The reports use HCUP administrative health care data.

About the NIS

The HCUP National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) is a national database of hospital inpatient stays. The NIS is nationally representative of all community hospitals (i.e., short-term, non-Federal, nonrehabilitation hospitals). The NIS includes all payers. It is drawn from a sampling frame that contains hospitals comprising more than 95 percent of all discharges in the United States. The vast size of the NIS allows the study of topics at the national and regional levels for specific subgroups of patients. In addition, NIS data are standardized across years to facilitate ease of use. Over time, the sampling frame for the NIS has changed; thus, the number of States contributing to the NIS varies from year to year. The NIS is intended for national estimates only; no State-level estimates can be produced.

The 2012 NIS was redesigned to optimize national estimates. The redesign incorporates two critical changes:

  • Revisions to the sample design—starting with 2012, the NIS is now a sample of discharge records from all HCUP-participating hospitals, rather than a sample of hospitals from which all discharges were retained (as is the case for NIS years before 2012).
  • Revisions to how hospitals are defined—the NIS now uses the definition of hospitals and discharges supplied by the statewide data organizations that contribute to HCUP, rather than the definitions used by the American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey of Hospitals.
The new sampling strategy is expected to result in more precise estimates than those that resulted from the previous NIS design by reducing sampling error: for many estimates, confidence intervals under the new design are about half the length of confidence intervals under the previous design. The change in sample design for 2012 necessitates recomputation of prior years' NIS data to enable analysis of trends that uses the same definitions of discharges and hospitals.

About the NEDS

The HCUP Nationwide Emergency Department Database (NEDS) is a unique and powerful database that yields national estimates of ED visits. The NEDS was constructed using records from both the HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) and the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The SEDD capture information on ED visits that do not result in an admission (i.e., treat-and-release visits and transfers to another hospital); the SID contain information on patients initially seen in the ED and then admitted to the same hospital. The NEDS was created to enable analyses of ED utilization patterns and support public health professionals, administrators, policymakers, and clinicians in their decisionmaking regarding this critical source of care. The NEDS is produced annually beginning in 2006. Over time, the sampling frame for the NEDS has changed; thus, the number of States contributing to the NEDS varies from year to year. The NEDS is intended for national estimates only; no State-level estimates can be produced.

For More Information

For more information about HCUP, visit http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/.

For additional HCUP statistics, visit HCUP Fast Stats at http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/faststats/landing.jsp for easy access to the latest HCUP-based statistics for health information topics, or visit HCUPnet, our interactive query system, at http://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/.

For information on other HIV hospitalizations in the United States, refer to the following HCUP Statistical Brief located at http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/statbriefs.jsp:
  • Statistical Brief #180, Overview of Hospital Stays in the United States, 2012
  • Statistical Brief #181, Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2012
  • Statistical Brief #186, Most Frequent Operating Room Procedures Performed in U.S. Hospitals, 2003-2012
  • Statistical Brief #162, Most Frequent Conditions in U.S. Hospitals, 2011

For a detailed description of HCUP and more information on the design of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), please refer to the following database documentation:

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Overview of the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Updated November 2016. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nisoverview.jsp. Accessed February 17, 2016.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Overview of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Updated January 2016. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nedsoverview.jsp. Accessed February 17, 2016.

Suggested Citation

Weiss AJ (Truven Health Analytics), Elixhauser A (AHRQ). Sports-Related Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Inpatient Stays, 2013. HCUP Statistical Brief #207. July 2016. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb207-Sports-Hospital-Emergency-Department-2013.pdf. .

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Minya Sheng and Kim McDermott of Truven Health Analytics.

***

AHRQ welcomes questions and comments from readers of this publication who are interested in obtaining more information about access, cost, use, financing, and quality of health care in the United States. We also invite you to tell us how you are using this Statistical Brief and other HCUP data and tools, and to share suggestions on how HCUP products might be enhanced to further meet your needs. Please e-mail us at hcup@ahrq.gov or send a letter to the address below:

David Knutson, Director
Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857



1 Physical Activity Council. 2016 Participation Report: The Physical Activity Council's Annual Study Tracking Sports, Fitness, and Recreation Participation in the US. http://www.physicalactivitycouncil.com/PDFs/current.pdf. Exit Disclaimer Accessed March 4, 2016.
2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Injury Center Research Priorities. http://www.cdc.gov/injury/pdfs/researchpriorities/cdc-injury-research-priorities.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2016.
3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nonfatal sports- and recreation-related injuries treated in emergency departments—United States, July 2000-June 2001. MMWR Weekly. 2002;51(33):736-40.
4 Ibid.
5 Bayt DR, Bell TM. Trends in paediatric sports-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments, 2001-2013. Injury Prevention. 23 December 2015. Epub ahead of print. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2015-041757
6 Ibid.
7 Wier L, Miller A, Steiner C. Sports injuries in children requiring hospital emergency care, 2006. HCUP Statistical Brief #75. June 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb75.pdf. Accessed March 9, 2016.
8 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nonfatal traumatic brain injuries related to sports and recreation activities among persons aged ≤ 19 years—United States 2001-2009. 2011;60(39):1337-42.
9 Practice Management Information Corporation. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, 6th ed. (ICD-9-CM), 2013. Hospital Edition, vols. 1, 2, and 3. Los Angeles, CA: Practice Management Information Corporation; 2012.
10 Barrett M, Steiner C. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) External Cause of Injury Code (E Code) Evaluation Report (Updated with 2012 Data). 2015. HCUP Methods Series Report #2015-03 ONLINE. March 3, 2015. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/methods/2015-03.pdf. Accessed April 18, 2016.
11 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. HCUP Clinical Classifications Software (CCS). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Updated June 2015. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/ccs/ccs.jsp. Accessed February 17, 2016.

Internet Citation: Statistical Brief #207. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). August 2016. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb207-Sports-Hospital-Emergency-Department-2013.jsp.
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